Skip to main content

Full text of "Architecture of Bowdoin College"

See other formats


The Architecture of 

BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Patricia McGraiv Anderson 

Photographs by Richard Cheek 




1 



The Architecture of 

BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



The Architecture of 

BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Patricia McGraw Anderson 

Photographs by Richard Cheek 



Bowdoin College Museum of Art 
Brunswick, Maine 1988 



Published with the assistance of 

the Maine Historic Preservation Commission 

and the National Park Service, 

Department of the Interior. 

Parts of the glossary of this book 

first appeared in Portland and are used here by permission 

of Greater Portland Landmarks, Inc. 

cover: John G. Brown, 

Bowdoin Campus, ca. 1822, oil on canvas, 

Bowdoin College Museum of Art. 

design: Michael Mahan Graphics, 
Bath, Maine 

photographs: Richard Cheek. 

Archival material and illustrative photographs 

courtesy of Special Collections, 

Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, Bowdoin College. 

typesetting: The Anthoensen Press 

printing: Penmor Lithographers 

ISBN: 0-916606-13-9 

Library of Congress Catalog Number: 87-71827 

Copyright © 1988 by the President and Trustees of Bowdoin College 

All rights reserved 



CONTENTS 



PROLOGUE 

FOREWORD 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

THE FIRST WALK: The Quadrangle i 

Massachusetts Hall 9 

Maine Hall 1 3 

Winthrop Hall 17 

Appleton Hall 19 

The Chapel 23 

Seth Adams Hall 29 

Memorial Hall 33 

Mary Frances Searles Science Building 39 

Walker Art Building 43 

Hubbard Hall 49 

Hyde Hall 5 3 

The Memorial Flagpole 5 7 

Harvey Dow Gibson Hall of Music 5 8 

Coleman Hall 61 
Nathaniel Hawthorne-Henry 

Wads worth Longfellow Library 63 

Class of 1922 Fountain 67 

The Visual Arts Center 69 

THE SECOND WALK: The Back Campus and Mall 73 

Heating Plant 8 5 
Sargent Gymnasium and General 

Thomas Worcester Hyde Athletic Building 88 

The Polar Bear 93 

Dudley Coe Health Center 95 

Curtis Pool 97 

Moulton Union 10 1 

Moore Hall , 104 

Sills Hall and Smith Auditorium 107 

Parker Cleaveland Hall 109 

Dayton Arena 1 1 1 

Malcolm E. Morrell Gymnasium 1 1 3 

The Tineman 1 1 5 



THE THIRD WALK: The Perimeter n 7 

The President's Gateway 119 

Rhodes Hall 121 

Commons Hall 123 

Class of 1878 Gateway 124 

Getchell House 125 

Ham House 127 

The First Parish Church 128 

Chamberlain House 133 

Franklin Clement Robinson Gateway 1 3 5 

Alpha Delta Phi House 137 

Burnett House 139 

Class of 1875 Gateway 141 

Alpha Rho Upsilon House 143 

Beta Theta Pi House 145 

Theta Delta Chi House 147 

Psi Upsilon House 149 

Ashby House 1 5 1 

Boody-Johnson House 1 5 3 

Warren Eastman Robinson Gateway 1 5 6 

Chi Psi House 1 5 8 

Delta Sigma House 161 

Delta Kappa Epsilon House 163 

Little-Mitchell House 164 
Coles Tower, Wentworth Hall, 

and Chamberlain Hall 167 

Alpheus Spring Packard Gateway 171 

Baxter House 173 

Zeta Psi House 175 

The Pickard Field Complex 177 

Alpha Kappa Sigma House 181 
Whittier Field, Hubbard Grandstand, 

and Class of 1903 Gateway 183 
Pine Grove Cemetery and 

Pine Street Apartments 185 
85 Federal Street and Marshall Perley 

Cram Alumni House 189 



ENDNOTES 
GLOSSARY 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 
INDEX 



[ 93 
202 
209 
215 



MAP 224 



PROLOGUE 



To walk through the Bowdoin campus is to walk through the history of 
American architecture. The Federal period, the Greek Revival, the 
Gothic Revival, the Victorian, and the modern — all are to be found here. 
Each age has left its imprint, and today the buildings of Bowdoin stand as a 
record of the changing tastes of our forebears. The student, who President 
Hyde hoped would learn "to count Art an intimate friend," lives daily with 
that opportunity. The very campus is a part of the liberal arts experience at 
Bowdoin. 

It is most appropriate, therefore, that a book heralding the architecture of 
the College be published and that it take the form of a series of walks. Not 
only may the uninitiated discover this remarkable world, but we who have 
grown too easily accustomed may have our senses quickened to the beauty 
that surrounds us. 

Books, like buildings, do not simply grow. They result from visions, 
encouragement, hard work, and practiced skills. In the foreword that fol- 
lows, Katharine J. Watson and Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr., have acknowl- 
edged many whose labors have made this particular book possible. Others 
are cited by Patricia M. Anderson. I would like to second their praise and 
gratitude. I would also like to thank Katharine Watson, Earle Shettleworth, 
and Patricia Anderson, for without their continuing concern this opportu- 
nity to rediscover the Bowdoin campus would not exist. 



A. LeRoy Greason 
President 
Bowdoin College 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/architectureofbowdOOande 



FOREWORD 



The campus of Bowdoin College, especially the central quadrangle, is one 
of the most beautiful in America. That beauty has evolved from an 
interweaving of natural site and architecture with tradition. But the splendor 
of the architecture remains largely unsung, so familiar are the buildings to 
those who use them. They have served most often as a quiet backdrop to the 
human events of the College's history. 

The publication of a book to celebrate the architecture began as the dream 
of John R. Ward '83, who developed a reverent attachment to the campus 
buildings. As an undergraduate, he began his research, sharing his findings 
with the Maine Historic Preservation Commission. 

In 1983 and 1985, as the result of Mr. Ward's interest in the buildings and 
his considerable enthusiasm for the project, the Maine Historic Preservation 
Commission and the Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 
granted the Museum of Art funds sufficient to initiate publication and to 
insure fulfillment of Mr. Ward's dream. 

With the guidance of an advisory committee, John Ward spent a year on 
research and writing; Richard Cheek was commissioned to take the photo- 
graphs. After the initial year, Patricia McGraw Anderson, one of Maine's 
most distinguished architectural historians and preservationists, assumed 
authorship of the book. 

With devotion and determination, Mrs. Anderson has pursued the diffi- 
cult challenge of sifting through voluminous archival materials and separat- 
ing fact from legend. In her text, she changes the traditional way of viewing 
the campus and awakens readers to the significance of the architecture. 
Deftly, she provides insight into the history of each building, placing Bow- 
doin's development within the larger context of campuses and curriculums 
across the country. With authority and delicacy, she traces the appearance of 
buildings and teaches her audience how to look. 

Katharine J. Watson 

Director 

Bowdoin College Museum of Art 

Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr. 

Director 

Maine Historic Preservation Commission 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



It is the College's buildings which give lasting substance to the history of 
the institution. Thus The Architecture of Bowdoin College becomes also a 
history of an educational institution founded nearly two hundred years ago. I 
am, therefore, delighted to acknowledge the help, support, and encourage- 
ment of my Bowdoin College colleagues and friends who played roles in the 
making of this book. 

With pleasure I acknowledge the thoughtful leadership of Director Kath- 
arine J. Watson, whose vision of the museum's collections includes, always, 
the work of art in which they are housed, Charles Follen McKim's 1894 
Walker Art Building. To the administrative assistant to the director, Roxlyn 
T. Yanok, I am indebted for her oversight of the complexities of this project 
and for her friendly counsel. I am grateful to Helen Semerdjian Dube, who 
undertook the work of typing, provided research for the fraternity buildings, 
and offered assistance in countless ways. All the museum staff members 
deserve my hearty thanks for their support, their interest, and their 
enthusiasm. 

It is always satisfying when a necessity becomes a pleasure; so it was 
working in the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library. Arthur Monke and his staff 
gave their help with unfailing good humor. Particular mention should be 
made of Dianne M. Gutscher, curator of Special Collections, and her assist- 
ant, Susan. B. Ravdin '80, whose willing and patient involvement is deeply 
appreciated. I am also grateful to A. Laura McCourt and John B. Ladley, Jr., 
for their services, cheerfully rendered. 

The cooperative nature of this institutional enterprise is reflected in the 
help of the Office of the Treasurer; the Department of Physical Plant; Janet B. 
Smith, assistant to the president; and William D Shipman, Adams-Catlin 
Professor of Economics. Professor Shipman's own publications on early 
Bowdoin and Brunswick architecture were invaluable, as was his help during 
the course of the project. 

I am grateful to Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr., director of the Maine Historic 
Preservation Commission, for his agency's support of this undertaking, for 
his own generosity and swiftness in providing help and information, and for 
his careful reading of the final manuscript. I wish to acknowledge John V. 
GofTs work on Felix Arnold Burton for the commission, and Greer 
Hardwick's work on Kilham and Hopkins, which came to my attention 
through the kind interest of Richard M. Candee, director of the Preservation 
Studies Program at Boston University. 

In my quest for information on other college campuses, I am grateful for 
generous responses from Boston University, Dartmouth College, Mid- 
dlebury College, Princeton University, Smith College, Trinity College, 
Wellesley College, Williams College, and Yale University. 



John R. Ward '83, in his important preliminary research for this project, 
benefited, as do I, from the suggestions of Arthur Gerrier, of Strawberry 
Banke, Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Professor William Morgan, Univer- 
sity of Louisville; Willard B. Robinson, Lubbock, Texas; Arlene Palmer 
Schwind, Yarmouth, Maine; Professors Damie M. Stillman and Bryant F. 
Tolles, University of Delaware; Paul Wade '54, Lexington, Massachusetts; 
and Edward F. Zimmer, Boston, Massachusetts. 

I wish to express enthusiastic thanks to Lucie G. Teegarden, associate 
director of public relations and publications, Rachel D. Dutch, former assist- 
ant director of public relations and publications, and Susan L. Ransom, 
whose thoughtful editing and production coordination deserve heartfelt 
praise. I am also grateful to Pauline S. Greason and Robert M. Cross, secre- 
tary of the College, whose reading of the manuscript and suggestions were 
invaluable. Mrs. Greason was particularly generous in sharing her research 
on the Johnson and Chase families. 

Richard Cheek's unfailing vision and patience have provided architecture 
photographs of excellence. Michael W. Mahan '73 has put text and photo- 
graphs together to produce a book design of lively and enduring quality. 

To President Greason and the Governing Boards goes my gratitude for 
their appreciation of architecture and wise stewardship of the buildings of 
Bowdoin. 

Patricia McGraw Anderson 



Bowdoin College, 
Brunswick, Maine, en- 
graved by J. W. White, 
published bj J. Griffin, 
ca. i860 




THE FIRST WALK 



The Quadrangle 

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

THE General Court of Massachusetts granted the charter for Bowdoin 
College in 1794, concluding seven years of deliberations, petitions, 
and political maneuvering by citizens of the District of Maine who sought a 
college for their sons that would be more accessible than Harvard College 
in Cambridge. Those seven years had also been used to establish a location 
for the college and to find a patron whose donation could be combined with 
the grant of lands from the Commonwealth. Having received assurances 
from James Bowdoin III that land and money would be forthcoming if the 
college were named for his father, a former governor of Massachusetts, the 
legislature settled on the name. Maine members of the legislature selected 
Brunswick as the site over Portland, North Yarmouth, Gorham, and several 
other ambitious towns. 

During the eight years between the granting of the charter and the 
arrival of the first students, the Governing Boards — trustees and overseers, 
a system of governance taken from Harvard's — met regularly to secure 
land in the chosen town, to find a president, and to negotiate the sale of 
granted lands for the cash to build the college "house." 

The first college building, Massachusetts Hall, which was ready for use 
in 1802, required a compromise between the funds available and the 
trustees' plan for a building one hundred feet long by forty feet wide and 
four stories high. The erection of Massachusetts Hall was followed by the 
building of two frame structures, a house for the president and a "building 
forty feet long, twenty five feet wide, and two stories high . . . , for the 
purpose of a chapel & place of deposit for the library & philosophical 
apparatus . . . ," according to the Governing Boards' minutes of May 15, 
1805 - 1 In 1 808, Maine Hall was completed according to the original Massa- 
chusetts Hall plans. 

The College at that time comprised twenty-nine students, a president, 
two faculty members, and five tutors; its two brick and two frame buildings 
provided living quarters, recitation spaces, and a combination chapel- 
library, all occupying less than one-quarter of a thirty-acre grant from the 
town of Brunswick. Massachusetts Hall defined the northern boundary of 
the original campus and Maine Hall the eastern; the chapel was on line with 
Maine Hall to the south and eventually (in 181 8) was turned to face Massa- 
chusetts Hall; the president's house fronted on Maine Street, defining the 
western boundary. 

Only two buildings were added during the following thirty-one years, a 
span that included the presidencies of Joseph McKeen, Jesse Appleton, and 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Winthrop Hall, ca. iSyj 



William Allen. Another dormitory, 
Winthrop Hall (1822), and Commons 
(1 828-1 829), then a dining facility and 
now the headquarters of the physical 
plant staff, were built to accommodate 
a student body that had grown to 135. 
Even with the completion of Maine 
and Winthrop Halls, many young men 
still took lodgings in Brunswick, and 
even after the building of Commons 
most found their meals in town. 

the subject of student accommo- 
dations appears with predictable regu- 
larity in the minutes of the Governing Boards. The boards' concern illus- 
trates a basic tenet of early American higher education. Colleges were 
residential, and the faculty acted in loco parentis insofar as they were able. 
Tutors could have more complete influence over the students' moral and 
intellectual lives when they were all housed together in dormitories. 

College instruction in the early 1800s was based on a finite body of 
knowledge that generally had to be memorized. The curriculum comprised 
ancient languages, natural philosophy, physics, and mathematics. Mental 
and moral philosophy, modern languages, and rhetoric were not added 
until the 1820s. Studying consisted of memorization and translation; reci- 
tation was the apt name for class. Classrooms as we know them were not 
built until later; smaller, simpler spaces for recitation were all that was 
needed. 

Although the library and its needs are constant themes during all of 
Bowdoin's history, the collection of books here, as at other colleges, 
remained of more symbolic than practical importance until after the mid- 
nineteenth century. Library hours were severely limited. Libraries clearly 
were not the place of study they have become. In Harvard's Gore Hall, for 
instance, as late as the 1840s there was no general index, and volumes were 
shelved by donor rather than by subject. Bowdoin's library was more pro- 
gressive: the first printed catalogue was arranged by subject and appeared 
in 1 82 1. A manuscript catalogue of 1 819 lists books by subject and alcove. 

At Bowdoin, as at other young American colleges, student literary socie- 
ties were formed, each with its own library. For almost fifty years the Peuci- 
nian Society (founded in 1805) and the Athenaean Society (founded in 
1 808) provided intellectual stimulus and social focus for Bowdoin under- 
graduates. The societies' libraries of general literature and periodicals were 
admired: "The amounts contributed by undergraduates for the purchase of 



THE QUADRANGLE 



books were not infrequently double that appropriated by the Boards for the 
increase of the college library," commented George Thomas Little, college 
librarian, in 1 894.2 

Instruction, too, was not based on research. About 1 8 1 2 one Bowdoin 
professor objected to the introduction of a second text, lest this muddle the 
student or lead to undue questions. 3 Nevertheless, the many distinguished 
early graduates of Bowdoin suggest that educational methodology need 
not inhibit energetic and creative minds. The 1882 History of Bowdoin College 
with Biographical Sketches of Its Graduates devotes a full paragraph to each 
graduate from 1806 to 1879 anc ^ ls illustrated with engravings made from 
daguerreotypes of the more renowned — college presidents; United States 
senators; Franklin Pierce, fourteenth president of the United States; and, of 
course, the two prodigies of the class of 1825, Nathaniel Hawthorne and 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 

the presidencies of Joseph McKeen (1 802-1 807), Jesse Appleton (1807- 
18 19), and William Allen (1820- 18 39) were spent shepherding the young 
institution through economic and political crises while raising buildings, 
finding teachers, and overseeing student life. This was the period of the 
Embargo Act and the War of 1812. In the District of Maine, agitation for 
statehood became increasingly noisy until, in 1 820, with the Missouri Com- 
promise, Maine finally became the twenty-third state to enter the Union. 

Joseph McKeen, a Congregational minister like many other New Eng- 
land college presidents, lived to see Maine Hall begun, but his health failed 
after only six years at Bowdoin, and he died in 1807. His successor, Jesse 
Appleton, also a Congregational minister, was Bowdoin's president for 
twelve years until he died in 18 19. The Reverend William Allen, who was 
recruited from Dartmouth, had the intricate job of establishing the Col- 
lege's relationship with the new state and its first governor, William King. 
During Allen's nineteen years as president, the Medical College of Maine 
was founded at Bowdoin, and Maine Hall was almost completely rebuilt 
after a disastrous fire. The faculty under Allen numbered five: Parker 
Cleaveland, Alpheus Spring Packard, William Smyth, Samuel Newman, 
and Thomas Upham, each of whom "served Bowdoin with honor to them- 
selves and the college for an average of over forty-five years," according to 
Louis C. Hatch. 4 

While Allen doubled the number of students, introduced modern lan- 
guages, and saw the establishment of the Medical School of Maine in 1820, 
his relations with the Governing Boards were not always smooth. It was 
suggested that he was inflexible in his convictions. 5 An attempt was made 
through the Maine legislature to remove him in 1 8 3 1 . After a legal trial, the 
relationship of the state to the College was clarified, and President Allen 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



was returned to his duties. By 1838, however, it was clear that Allen's 
presence created difficulties with the boards and with the students, 
although not with the faculty. Reluctantly, he decided to resign. His later 
years were spent in Northampton, Massachusetts, still in close touch with 
faculty colleagues from Bowdoin. Shortly after his departure from Bruns- 
wick, in 1839, the president's house, the second structure built by the 
College, burned down and was not replaced. 

It was in the midst of the economic depression following the panic of 
1837 that the boards sought to elect a new president. Leonard Woods was a 
thirty-two-year-old ordained Congregational minister and professor of 
Biblical literature at Bangor Theological Seminary when he agreed to be 
the fourth president of the College. A graduate of Andover Theological 
Seminary, he was a translator, editor, and writer of repute. His presidency 
of twenty-seven years brought the college to a young maturity. Architectur- 
ally Bowdoin College assumed a distinctive form under his administration 
as the developed campus area was doubled. By the time of the Chapel's 
completion in 1855, the number of students had increased. Appleton Hall, 
the dormitory completed in 1 843, was full, and Bowdoin built Adams Hall 
to house science classes and the Medical School of Maine. 

Plans for the construction of a new chapel began during President Al- 
len's tenure, but it was Leonard Woods whose persistence saw the project 
to completion. A proper library and exhibition space for the art collection 
given by the Bowdoin family were also parts of the new chapel plan. Clearly, 
Woods sought a fine chapel as a needed symbol of the importance and 
mission of the College. 



although the centrality of religion to education in the United States was 
assumed, the degree of sectarianism varied from college to college. From 
the beginning, Bowdoin was thought of as Congregationalist, although 
this notion is not even implicit in the charter. Congregational ministers 
served as Trustees and Overseers as well as presidents. Sectarian concerns 
became important during Woods's administration and were first apparent 
during fund raising for the new chapel. In response to solicitations in 1 846, 
many of which were made to Congregational churches in Maine, an unoffi- 
cial declaration of adherence to orthodox Congregationalism was signed by 
many members of the Governing Boards as an assurance against the liberal- 
ism of the Unitarians. Waterville, now Colby, College had recently raised 
needed funds from Baptist congregations. 

In addition to money for building a new chapel, $17,43 5 was subscribed 
to establish the Collins Professorship of Natural and Revealed Religion. 
This was the College's first endowed chair, but the duties required of the 
incumbent were not so much those of a teaching faculty member as they 



THE QUADRANGLE 



were those of a chaplain and counselor. Even though the Collins Professor 
was required to be an ordained, orthodox Congregational minister, the 
Congregational churches did not officially support the College, nor did 
they look to it as a theological seminary. 

Since religion, particularly among the various Protestant sects, was an 
issue of considerable political importance, dissension was inevitable in the 
Governing Boards. In 1858 Robert Hallowell Gardiner, a Trustee and a 
close advisor of Woods's, wrote to Charles S. Daveis, class of 1807, like 
Gardiner a diligent and enlightened Trustee, "I always determined to resign 
my seat at the Board of Trustees whenever the college should pass into the 
hands of narrow minded people and become a sectarian college. . . ." 6 Gar- 
diner, an Episcopalian, went on to object to recent changes on the Gov- 
erning Boards which were much too conservative to his mind and which he 
saw as detrimental to the leadership of the president. 

This crisis of sectarianism took place three years after the completion of 
the Chapel, which itself had taken eleven years. Leonard Woods, who had 
long expressed the plan of retiring to pursue scholarship when he reached 
sixty, saw the College through the Civil War and then resigned in 1866. At 
the 1866 Commencement he was given an honorary degree; he spent the 
twelve remaining years of his life in Brunswick. 

bowdoin's next two presidents served during a post-war lull that included 
little building but much change in curriculum and student life. Samuel 
Harris, yet another ordained Congregational minister and professor at 
Bangor Theological Seminary, succeeded Leonard Woods in 1 867 to be the 
fifth president of Bowdoin College. Harris was already a Trustee of the 
College when he was elected president. His four years in office were marked 
by attention to teaching methods and attempts to eliminate the practice of 
hazing. He resigned in 1871 to become professor of systematic theology at 
Yale. 

Harris's successor was also a Trustee and had been a professor at the 
College. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, class of 1 8 5 2, had risen to the rank 
of brevet major general during the Civil War and had served four terms as 
governor of Maine. 

The post-Civil War period was a distinct phase in the development of 
American higher education. Most colleges were experimenting seriously 
with the essentially eighteenth-century classical curriculum. Chamberlain 
tried introducing a Bachelor of Science program in addition to the tradi- 
tional Bachelor of Arts. Although his experiment failed, it did open up the 
sciences: laboratory work by students became an accepted learning tech- 
nique in both the undergraduate and the medical school courses. At this 
time Massachusetts and Adams Halls furnished most of the classrooms and 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



The Delta playing field 
and Adams Hall, ca. 




all of the laboratory spaces for graduating classes of between forty-four and 
sixty. 

During the presidencies of Harris and Chamberlain, the number of 
students, including the medical school, remained at about 130. This repre- 
sented a significant drop from an enrollment of almost 200 during the Civil 
War period and reflected Bowdoin's limited resources and a curriculum too 
narrow for the new era. At this time, other disciplines besides the sciences 
went through curricular changes, and athletic programs were begun. 
Baseball competition with Colby College (founded in 181 3) was keen in the 
1 870s. Sports competitions with Bates College (founded in 1863) and the 
University of Maine (founded in 1865) were soon to follow. 

Within the confines of a strict curriculum and strict living regulations, 
students found acceptable as well as questionable releases for their energy. 
Today the practices of hazing, pranks, and class battles survive in only 
vestigial form. The Bugle, the college yearbook, began publication in 1858; 
the student newspaper, the Orient, has been published weekly since 1 871 . In 
1 877 the Dorics, a dramatic society, was formed, although not without strict 
faculty guidance (in the earliest days, attendance at plays was specifically 
forbidden). Even during Woods's administration, the original literary soci- 
eties, the Athenaean and the Peucinian, faded, and fraternities were founded 
at Bowdoin. 

The construction of Memorial Hall was begun in 1868 under President 
Harris and finished in 1882 under President Chamberlain. When it was 
finally finished, it held two classrooms, a lecture hall, and a large meeting 
room upstairs where the entire College could gather. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



In 1883, chamberlain resigned to pursue other ventures. A college in the 
process of change was his legacy to William DeWitt Hyde, his successor. 
Hyde was a graduate of Harvard College and the Andover Theological 
Seminary, an ordained Congregational minister who guided the College for 
thirty-two years. 

The presidency of William DeWitt Hyde signaled a coming of age in the 
development of educational philosophy and in the buildings that housed 
the business of the College. His administration began with the building of 
the first Sargent Gymnasium and ended, appropriately, with the building of 
Hyde Hall, the first new dormitory in almost seventy-five years. The Walker 
Art Building, the Mary Frances Searles Science Building, and Hubbard 
Hall — all built in the decade between 1 892 and 1902 — conferred shape and 
symmetry on the college yard, which became a quadrangle with impressive 
buildings on all four sides. 

The conjunction of three factors — a young ambitious president; the 
faculty's desire to evaluate and move ahead educationally, however cau- 
tiously; and the unexpected generosity of several donors — resulted in a 
larger undergraduate body and expanded course offerings. The first Report 
of the President was printed and circulated by President Hyde for the aca- 
demic year 1 891 1892. In that report, he emphasized the increased number 
of elective courses as much as the gift by the Misses Harriet Sarah and Mary 
Sophia Walker of a building to house the art collection. 

From the time of the completion of the Walker Art Building, a list of 
Bowdoin buildings was included regularly in the annual college catalogue. 
This gesture signals pride in the new buildings, underscores the improved 
scope of the College's educational offerings, and reflects an appreciation of 
architecture that persists today. 

While the generosity of the Misses Walker was almost unexpected, build- 
ing needs for the sciences and the library had been noted in boards minutes 
and in the Report of the President for several years. Hyde noted in the 1 89 5 — 
1 896 Report: "Hardly a college in America that has celebrated its centenary, 
is destitute of a handsome library building. No one of the New England 
colleges, with a library of half the size of Bowdoin, is without a special 
structure for it. . . ." As he continues it is clear that libraries were no longer 
"ornamental treasure houses," but had become structures for the pursuit of 
independent research, as well as guardians of the written word. The blos- 
soming of curriculum is implicit in the expression of library needs. 

It is tempting to equate the burgeoning of Bowdoin at the turn of the 
century with events in the country at large. To be sure, the emergence of 
significant private fortunes and a subsequent generosity to education were 
noteworthy. Stanford University in California was founded in memory of 
Leland Stanford, Jr., by his parents, and the University of Chicago by John 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



D. Rockefeller, while existing campuses were doubled by generous donors 
at Princeton and Yale. 

In the same way, Bowdoin benefited enormously from the generosity of 
one donor, General Thomas Hamlin Hubbard, class of 1857. He gave the 
College Hubbard Hall and Hubbard Grandstand, he persuaded Edward F. 
Searles to fund the Mary Frances Searles Science Building, and he set a 
concerned and openhanded example for many other donors. 

At a time when generosity on the scale of General Hubbard's was not 
unusual, it is important to note the conjunction of a farsighted president 
and a thoughtful Trustee. Hyde and Hubbard shared a perception of the 
College's needs and hopes for its future development. The Report of the 
President for 1914-1915 begins with the news of Thomas Hamlin 
Hubbard's death in May 191 5. In the concluding paragraph, Hyde says: 

He was the best friend Bowdoin College ever had. He carried its problems and 
interests constantly in his mind and heart, and his great benefactions, amounting to 
more than half a million dollars, came not in response to solicitation, but as the 
spontaneous expression of his intense devotion. 

Only two years later, Hyde himself died. Some of the needs he had chroni- 
cled had been filled and other improvements were underway. In the mean- 
time, he had led the College firmly into its role during World War I. 

The first walk begins at Massachusetts Hall, the College's oldest build- 
ing, and continues around the quadrangle to its most recent building, the 
Visual Arts Center. The text is arranged chronologically, which is the gen- 
eral order of the buildings as well. 



THE QUADRANGLE 9 




Massachusetts Hall 



799- 



AARON AND SAMUEL MELCHER III 



It was two full years after the signing of the charter for Bowdoin College 
before documents appeared proposing the first building. During those two 
years, the specifications changed four times. The most significant modifi- 
cation, made under economic pressure, was to build a structure one-half as 
long and one story lower than had been planned. This first Bowdoin build- 
ing answered all the earliest college needs: quarters for the president, quar- 
ters for students, and spaces for recitation and chapel. 

. . . i5th:day of May 1798 . . . There shall be erected on some part of the above 
thirty acres of land, as to the Committee, hereafter shall be judged to be most 
suitable, a building fifty feet long & forty feet wide, three stories high, with a cellar 



IO 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




under the whole, for the use of the College; before 
the large building or hall mentioned in said vote 
shall be erected; the expense thereof to be defrayed 
from such donations as have or may be made. . . . 
And it is further voted that John Dunlop Esq r 
Benjamin Jones Porter, Esq r & Doc r Charles 
Coffin be a Committee to solicit & receive dona- 
tions, procure materials, & erect the said building 
as soon as possible. . . . The building aforesaid to 
be either of wood or brick as the Committee shall 
judge best, according to the material given. . . . 

And one year later, May 1 5, 1799: 

Voted, that the Committee, for building a house, 

The i8ji addition to for the use of the College, proceed with said building with all due speed ... a sum 

Massachusetts Hall be appropriated, not exceeding twenty-four hundred dollars. . . . That the first 

story of the house ... be ten feet in the clear, the second story nine feet, and the 

third story seven and a half, in the clear. . . . That there be two pediments on said 

building; and that its entry be ten feet in width. . . . 

The building committee, with Captain John Dunlap (or Dunlop), a pros- 
perous Brunswick merchant, as its chairman, hired Samuel Melcher III and 
his brother Aaron, busy and reputable Brunswick housewrights, to erect 
the new building. 

Although neither a contract with the Melcher brothers nor more detailed 
notes on the building design have come to light, there is clear proof of 
Melcher participation. The accounts of Dr. Charles Coffin, a member of the 
building committee and clerk of the works for the project, mention 
payments to the Brunswick housewrights. (The accounts also note regular 
payments for large quantities of rum.) Comparison of Massachusetts Hall 
with more fully documented Melcher structures, such as John Dunlap's 
own house, finished in 1800, Winthrop Hall of 1822, or other Melcher 
structures in Brunswick reveals stylistic and technical characteristics typical 
of the Melchers' work. 

Samuel and Aaron Melcher were gifted and practical builders. Their 
answer to the needs of the fledgling College proves their ability to work 
within a tight budget, yet rise above its limitations. In fulfilling the Col- 
lege's requirement for three floors, their plan bears a resemblance to high- 
style Federal houses in Portland, Boston, and Salem designed in the period 
1796 to 1807 by Alexander Parris, Samuel Mclntire, and Charles Bulfinch. 
Massachusetts Hall, however, has never had a domestic air: it is austerely 
monumental. The brick block is uninterrupted by decorative stringcourses 
or other devices to mark the stories; the relatively small size of the simple 
Federal entranceway, the restrained cornice, and the hipped roof also 
emphasize the imposing bulk of the building. Lest this structure seem only 



THE QUADRANGLE 



blocky, the well-proportioned doors and windows outlined by white mold- 
ings are of such appropriate width that the facades are enlivened. The depth 
of the structure, four bays, would be unusual for a domestic three-story 
elevation. 

Massachusetts Hall was formally named in 1 802 at President McKeen's 
inauguration. Changes were made almost immediately, the most dramatic 
being the addition of a belfry cupola. The cupola remained until 1830, 
although the bell had been moved to the College's first chapel in 1 8 1 8. The 
roof had suffered from the added weight. Over the years the original hipped 
roof has been changed slightly. It is now of a steeper pitch and the peaks are 
flattened. The chimneys today are shorter than old views show. 

In 1803 Massachusetts Hall served as president's house, students' resi- 
dence, chapel, library, and classroom. The president moved to a newly built 
residence, approximately where Searles Science Building now stands, 
within the year; a frame chapel and library was built by 1805; and by 1808 
the first dormitory, Maine Hall, was completed. 

• Massachusetts Hall then served as general classroom space. Science ex- 
periments were conducted by Professor Parker Cleaveland in the former 
kitchen. In 1820 the building was turned over to the Medical School of 
Maine, providing classroom and laboratory space until the school outgrew 
its quarters and was moved to Adams Hall in i860. Cleaveland had died in 
1858, leaving to the College an extensive collection of minerals and natural 
science specimens. 

As Massachusetts Hall was in need of repair, Cleaveland's son-in-law, 
Peleg W. Chandler, class of 1 834, hired the Boston architect Abel C. Martin 
to remodel the upper floors into a natural history museum. The Cleaveland 
Cabinet, as the collection was called, was built by Richard T. D. Melcher, 
son of Samuel Melcher III. Martin raised the easterly porch to its present 
two-story height and united the second and third floors into balconies 
surrounding a central well. 

It is clear from the opening remarks for the new Cleaveland Cabinet in 
1873 that Massachusetts Hall was regarded as a historic landmark that 
should remain unchanged at least on the exterior. 1 In 1936 and in 1941 
extensive interior renovations were carried out to accommodate, variously, 
the college administration, faculty offices, and classrooms. It now houses 
offices of the Departments of English, Philosophy, and Religion. Faculty 
meetings are held in the Faculty Room on the third floor. 



12 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE I 3 



Maine Hall 

1837 ANTHONY COOMBS RAYMOND 

There must have been relief and pride when the original Maine Hall was 
ready for students in 1808. It was the building that had been projected in 
college documents of 1796, before the depressed value of land had forced 
the Governing Boards to start with a smaller structure, Massachusetts Hall. 
To the original specifications in the boards' votes — brick, one hundred feet 
long by forty-two feet deep and four stories tall — had been added a refer- 
ence to "Hollis Hall in Cambridge." There is a resemblance to Harvard's 
dormitory building of 1762 in the projecting pedimented section on the 
long campus facade. 

Just as the College had determined to build a third "college," fire struck 
Maine Hall in March 1822. The day after the fire, various agents of the 
College set out to seek funds for the rebuilding. At the same time, an article 
appeared in the Portland newspaper reporting the fire, describing the great 
need of the College, and thanking residents of Brunswick for their prompt 
aid in housing students. A few days later this advertisement appeared: 
"Proposals for rebuilding the college lately destroyed by fire will be 
received. ..." The advertisement specified the size of the glass panes, "10 x 
8 inches"; the price of a "stone window cap and sill," $3.25; the addition of 
a fire wall, "the partition wall, now terminating in the 4th story is to be 
carried 4 feet above the roof; and, finally, "finishing plain, neat, and sub- 
stantial, with a mop board and strip above. No woodwork around the 
chimney, — hearth all around the chimney." 1 A floor plan from this re- 
building indicates that some of the first-story rooms were to be devoted to 
recitation, a change from the former interior arrangements. 2 

Samuel Melcher III, designer and builder of the burnt structure, submit- 
ted the appropriate bid for rebuilding; he was paid $6,409.53 betweeen 
June and September 1822. Once again Melcher's grasp of simple but well- 
proportioned construction gave distinction to a Bowdoin building. 

A painting of the early, campus by J. G. Brown shows the rebuilt Maine 
Hall. It had doorways like those that still serve Winthrop Hall (built in 
1822), but they were placed on the principal elevation, facing the campus. 
The stylistic importance of the hundred-foot-long facade was assured by a 
center projecting bay, crowned by a triangular pediment in which was cut a 
semicircular fanlight. A balustrade similar to the one formerly on Winthrop 
Hall surrounded the roof. The disposition of the chimneys, however, was 
different from Winthrop's. Winthrop's chimneys are exterior. 



14 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




The interior plan of Maine Hall put fireplaces on the 
south and north ends — the short walls — an arrangement 
consonant with the placement of the entries on the long 
flank. 

When the Reverend William Allen became president 
in 1820, he arrived at a college of four buildings, two of 
wood and two of brick, set upon a sandy plain. Tying 
together the campus were a fence and plank walks; pro- 
viding sanitation and water were "necessaries," cisterns, 
and wells, and of course there were woodsheds. On Sep- 
tember 4, 1 8 16, the Boards had: 

voted to elect an agent to take charge of and superintend the 
lands and buildings belonging to Bowdoin College, and that 
John Abbott Esq. be the said Agent . . . the sum of six hun- 
dred dollars be allowed and paid to John Abbott, Esq. annu- 
ally, as compensation for his services and personal expences in 
the offices of Treasurer, Librarian and Agent for the superin- 
tendence of the College Lands and Buildings. 

The lightning rods and the special roof coating 
referred to in purchase orders were of no avail in 1836, when once again 
Maine Hall suffered a devastating fire. A sophomore of the class of 1838, 
Edward Daveis, wrote to his father, the Honorable Charles Stewart Daveis 
of Portland, class of 1807, an Overseer since 18 16, elected Trustee in 1836: 

the Peucinian library was saved with very little injury, losing only those books 
which were in students' rooms in the north-western end. The Athenaean library 
containing over three thousand volumes, many very valuable, was entirely 
destroyed with the exception of such as are out. 3 

The two rival literary societies, upon petition in 1828, had been allowed 
to use the first floor recitation spaces in Maine Hall for their libraries and 
collections, as well as for meetings. Among the members of the Peucinian 
were Charles S. Daveis and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, class of 1825; 
the Athenaean roster included Franklin Pierce, class of 1 824, and Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, class of 1 8 2 5 . In the second rebuilding of Maine, special rooms 
were provided for the societies and for their scientific offspring, Phi Alpha 
and Caluvian. 

For reasons not clear, a contract for the second rebuilding of Maine Hall, 
in 1837, was signed with Anthony Coombs Raymond, rather than with the 
original builder, Samuel Melcher III. In 1828 Raymond had finished the 
Tontine Hotel in Brunswick, a frame Greek Revival structure on Maine 
Street. Later he was to design the Winter Street Church in Bath and other 
structures in both towns. Raymond, perhaps upon advice of the president 
and the Boards, followed Melcher's design for Winthrop Hall, thus not 



A Maine Mall doorway. 
Photograph by Richard 
Cheek. 



THE QUADRANGLE I 5 



repeating the most prominent features of the first Maine Hall design. 

The length and depth of the present Maine are the same as Winthrop, but 
Maine Hall is taller. The granite block basement rises higher, hence there 
are several steps leading to each door. The entranceways, placed now at 
either end, mark this stylistically as a later building. In place of the slender, 
arched, and only slightly recessed portals of Winthrop, the new Maine Hall 
has deeply indented openings that are twice as wide and arched elliptically. 
Although the arrangement of the windows is the same in the two buildings, 
the lintels are different. Maine Hall has plain rectangular blocks rather than 
the more lightly proportioned splayed shape of the Winthrop lintels. As the 
Federal style gave way to the Greek Revival, the swing to more solid pro- 
portions was widespread and always occurred somewhat later outside 
urban centers. 

Other improvements were also slow to reach Bowdoin. Running water 
was not installed in Maine Hall until 1892. President Hyde wrote in his 
report for 1 891-1892: 

Preparations have been made for a thorough reconstruction of Maine Hall the 
coming summer. New floors, new windows, new partitions, with steam heat and 
electric light in every room, and water and water closets on every floor will be 
provided. 

The interior refurbishment of 1892 cost $10,000; Anthony Raymond's 
whole building in 1836 had cost only $10,800. Although the exterior has 
remained the same since 1837, the interiors of this, Winthrop, and Apple- 
ton halls have been completely rebuilt within recent years. 



I 6 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE I 7 



Winthrop Hall 

1822 SAMUEL MELCHER III 

The Governing Boards had already determined to build a "new college" 
when fire struck the "old college," as Maine Hall was called, in March of 
1822. Despite the financial drain of work on two structures at once, the new 
building, which was to become Winthrop, was begun as planned in April, 
although it was not completed until August of 1823. Melcher's accounting 
for Winthrop came to $9,553.16, a mere $173.16 over his contract. 

In the meantime, Samuel Melcher III rebuilt Maine Hall — so named in 
April in anticipation of the new building — for about $6,200, and it was 
ready for use in the fall of 1822. 

Winthrop is critically important because it is the only extant reflection of 
the first Maine Hall, and because it became the prototype for future 
Bowdoin dormitory buildings. The similarity of the two end doors of 
Winthrop to the entrance of Massachusetts Hall is noteworthy. In both 
structures the doors are tall and slender, capped by a semicircular fanlight. 
The wooden moldings on Massachusetts Hall emphasize the flat plane of 
the principal facade, but the design on Winthrop Hall is quite different. 
Melcher set the door into the depth of the brick, thus visually penetrating 
this larger building. 

Melcher had another design strategy for enlivening the two ends: the 
three windows rising above the doors are tripartite, establishing a strong 
central focus that is reinforced by the use of keystones in the door's arch 
and on the three successive lintels. 

The doorways, keystones, and outward splayed lintels on the single win- 
dows impart a certain linear delicacy to Winthrop Hall. This effect, in 
combination with the verticality of the four-story elevation, identifies this 
as a late Federal structure. 

Among the first students to occupy Winthrop (then called North or New 
College) was Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, class of 1825. He wrote on 
October 12, 1823: 

My Dear Sister, 

. . . The room we occupy at present, is situated in the North Eastern corner of the 
North College — but I forget myself! — from such a description, you, who have 
never seen the colleges, can form no idea of its situation. . . . the bedroom window 
looks towards the village and Professor Cleaveland's, — the two other windows 
afford a delightful prospect, — no less so than the charm of an extensive woodland 
scenery of — pine trees, . . . But within! — How shall I describe \t\yellow floor! Green 
fireplace Mantel and window-seats, blueish white, — and three great doors, mahogany 
color} 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



On October 26, he wrote another sister, Anne, asking 
her for a "set of card racks to decorate my chimney 
piece" and a "pair of green curtains 4 feet 7 inches long 
and 3' 3" wide." 2 Such specific references, especially to 
color, are seldom found. Henry "chummed" with his 
brother Stephen in No. 27 on the third floor of the new 
building for their last two years. The addition of 
Winthrop made a dramatic change in the number of 
students who could live under close college super- 
vision. Nathaniel Hawthorne, also class of 1825, was 
one of a small minority who lived off campus. 

The two ends of the building were separated by a 
brick fire wall. Within each end were four floors, each 
containing four suites. In 1825, two years after New 
College was occupied, space in the south end of the first 
floor was converted to a freshman recitation room; later 
a lecture room with "proper seats" was created. 

Winthrop did not receive its name until 1847, when 
the Governing Boards voted that: "the name of 
Winthrop Hall be conferred on the North College 
building in honour of the former Governor of Massachusetts." Pressure to 
affix a proper name after twenty-five years came with the completion of a 




A Winthrop Hall 
doorway. Photograph by 
Richard Cheek. 



third dormitory, to be known as Appleton Hall. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



l 9 




slppleton Hall 

1843 SAMUEL MELCHER AND SONS 



Early in his tenure President Allen had turned his mind to planning for the 
development of the young campus. In 1825, after the establishment of the 
medical school, the building of Winthrop Hall, and the first rebuilding of 
Maine Hall, Allen wrote a letter to Trustee Reuel Williams in which he 
discussed the College's need for a chapel. Williams, who received an honor- 
ary degree from Bowdoin in 1855, served in the Maine Senate from 1 826 to 
1828 and in the United States Senate from 1837 to 1843. Allen enclosed a 
sketch plan of the campus which includes the site for "a future college." 1 
In another letter to Williams, Allen referred to: 

a plan adopted by the Boards some years ago, [in which] there are ultimately to be 
three colleges in a line (two of which are built), and the chapel is to be at the south 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



i.tt 



4.: 



* t 



Plan of Bowdoin campus 
by President Allen, 1S2J, 
in a letter to Keuel 
Williams 



end of the line of colleges, a few rods 
' "", to the west, fronting the Massa- 

.— '. chusetts Hall on the north. 2 

j During the first ten years of what 

0*i { was to become an almost twenty- 

year discussion of building 
needs, Allen's symmetrical but 

spatially limited scheme gave way 

to an outright row plan that pre- 
vailed for over forty years. 
The intention is described in the 1835 report by President Allen to the 
Visiting Committee: 

[Let us] . . . alter the . . . three college plan to include four or five ... on the east- 
ern line . . . that all the land in front may ultimately be open to the street ... 300 
feet south of Maine Hall, leaving room for a central chapel with a space of 100 feet 
on either side of it. The uniformity of the arrangement would be grateful to the eye, 
and the security against fire is not to be overlooked. 3 

The idea of planning sites for buildings and landscaping was implicit in 
the placement of the earliest buildings. There are boards votes to retain the 
services of a surveyor on one occasion and to follow "No. 2 plan" prepared 
by Alexander Parris on another. 4 The plan by the young Parris is lost, 
although it may have directed itself more to the landscape than to buildings. 

Many of the pre-revolutionary colleges provided plans — building orien- 
tations seems a more apt phrase — that inspired the new colleges of the next 
several decades. The old Brick Row of Yale facing the New Haven Green is 
certainly close to the scheme evolved at Bowdoin. Brunswick, like New 
Haven before it, had competed to become home to a newly-chartered col- 
lege. Did not this open face to the town in the early years of the nineteenth 
century demonstrate for each institution a similar relationship? 

One of the first signs of the vigor of Leonard Woods, Bowdoin's fourth 
president, was a printed solicitation from him, dated December 1841, 
designed to raise $50,000 for buildings, grounds, equipment, and faculty 
positions. The appeal was addressed to "Alumni of the College, and to all 
the friends of learning and religion." 5 Four-year pledges were sought by the 
committee, which was composed of the "executive government," that is, 
the president and faculty. By September 7, 1842, the boards voted to 
proceed on the new college hall the following year for a sum not to exceed 
ten thousand dollars. 

On December 1, 1842, a contract was concluded between "Samuel Mel- 
cher 2nd, Richard T. D. Melcher, Robert D Melcher and William H. Mel- 
cher, Housewright, and Carpenters, commonly styled Samuel Melcher & 
sons . . . and the President and Trustees of Bowdoin College, acting by 



THE QUADRANGLE 2 1 



Leonard Woods, Joseph McKeen and Ebenezer Everett, their commit- 
tee." 6 This document is rich in information about schedules, materials, 
design, bonding, and architectural intention. The schedule of payments 
indicates planned progress: materials would be assembled during the win- 
ter, and brick work would be completed by July i, 1843, with the implied 
finish date in time for fall classes. For $8,550 Samuel Melcher and Sons 
contracted to complete their sixth project for the College according to a 
plan designed by them twenty years earlier for Winthrop Hall. 

The contract makes repeated reference to Maine Hall, including interior 
finish work that had not been satisfactory. The intention was to bring 
coherence to the three halls. No balustrade was planned, but the shingled 
roof was repeated (today it is metal). The balustrades on Maine and 
Winthrop Halls had proved a nuisance. Students climbed the fire wall 
parapet to retrieve balls caught in them, and they were difficult to maintain. 

Appleton is distinguished from its predecessors by the form of the two 
end entranceways. The broad elliptically-arched Maine Hall portal has been 
replaced by a forthright Greek Revival straight three-part stone molding. 
The broader members and deeper recess confer greater substantiality on 
the door; its importance is further stressed by the procession of stairs, all 
but one exterior to the door. Thus the opening itself is placed higher on the 
facade and is, correspondingly, more impressive. 

The fall of 1843 brought 150 students. The completion of the new hall 
provided dormitory space for nearly everyone, thus accomplishing a goal of 
American colleges of the time, the self-contained scholarly community 
where student behavior could be monitored. Referred to briefly as South 
College, the new building was named in 1 847 for Bowdoin's second presi- 
dent, the Reverend Jesse Appleton. 



22 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE 23 



The Chapel 

1844-185 5 RICHARD UPJOHN 

Although a permanent chapel had been discussed, voted on, and sent to 
committee regularly during President Allen's tenure, the project gained the 
force of conviction only under the leadership of Leonard Woods, Bow- 
doin's fourth president. 

Ambitious and expensive, the program for the Chapel from the very 
beginning required unusual talent, untiring efforts, and enormous 
patience. The architectural ideas that Leonard Woods must have gathered 
in Europe in 1 840 required more than a Brunswick builder to carry out. As 
it happened, a Trustee, Robert Hallowell Gardiner, found the appropriate 
architect. In 1835 the young English emigre Richard Upjohn had designed 
Oaklands for the Gardiner family in Gardiner, Maine. One of the first 
Gothic Revival structures in America, the stone house still confers a 
romantic aura on its grounds. 

Gothic and stone were key ingredients in Woods's mind for giving 
substance to the needs of a combination chapel, library, and picture gallery. 
And, as Woods, Gardiner, Joseph McKeen (the college treasurer and son of 
Bowdoin's first president), and Charles S. Daveis exchanged letters, the 
program began to take shape. Woods to Daveis in March 1 844 mentions 
that there is a preliminary plan from Richard Upjohn that should fall within 
the $15,000 budget, that the Chapel should be in the Gothic or Roman- 
esque style "imposing and pleasing, though plain and simple," but that 
they cannot afford granite. 1 

Never before in Bowdoin College's fifty-year history had such docu- 
ments included the word style. The symbolic as well as the physical impor- 
tance of this new building were immense, and the decision to use the 
Romanesque rather than the Gothic turned on two factors, one religious 
and one financial. Richard Upjohn was a devout Anglican who had by 
traditional association and modern predilection equated Gothic architec- 
ture with Anglican practice. Upjohn had some difficulty reconciling Gothic 
design with the less formal liturgical demands of the Protestant sects that he 
encountered in the United States. He suggested the Romanesque alterna- 
tive, following from a similar solution for the Congregational Church of the 
Pilgrims in Brooklyn, New York, on which he was already working when 
he accepted the Bowdoin commission. (Three years later he developed a 
similar scheme for a Romanesque chapel at Harvard that was never con- 
structed.) Both Upjohn and Woods were earnest thinkers and ardent 
medievalists who knew the difference between Romanesque and Gothic 



24 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




and who recognized the significance of introducing a Romanesque vocabu- 
lary into the United States. 

The other deciding factor was cost. Upjohn was not indifferent to the 
College's fund-raising problems. During the busy year of 1844 he sug- 
gested to Woods that the Romanesque would be "within your means." 2 
When the practical president realized the expense of appropriate Gothic 
articulation, he was ready to accept a change to Romanesque. He did not, 
however, need to concede on stone, although earlier there had been talk of 
brick. 

The chapel project was beset by funding problems. The initial amount of 
$15,000 was raised in two years by the president, faculty, boards, and 
alumni. Additional funding came in 1 843 with the settlement of a lawsuit in 
favor of the College, owing in no small part to the perseverance of the 
president. Bowdoin College was residuary legatee to the estate of James 
Bowdoin III, the College's original benefactor. When Bowdoin died, he left 



THE QUADRANGLE 25 



his estate to his nephew, James Bowdoin Temple, on the conditions that 
Temple change his surname to Bowdoin and that he live in the United 
States. Should he or his issue die childless, the estate would go to the 
College. Although James Temple Bowdoin had a son, his having chosen to 
live in England for most of his life made the College's claim legitimate. In a 
settlement, a little over thirty-one thousand dollars was secured for the 
College, some of which was spent on the Chapel. 

Upjohn was engaged in 1 844, and by 1 845 the need for more money was 
apparent. It was decided to approach former Governor William King, a 
Trustee and resident of Bath, who pledged $6,000. 

By 1846, when the exterior had been completed up to the clerestory 
windows, another fund-raising effort was made. Professor Thomas Upham 
approached the Congregational churches on the grounds that Bowdoin 
had always had an essentially Congregational character, "as Yale and Trinity 
are known respectively as the College of the Episcopalians [Trinity] and 
Congregationalists [Yale] of Connecticut." 3 Most of the members of 
the Boards signed a document declaring that Bowdoin College "has been 
and still is of the Orthodox Congregational denomination." 4 About 
$70,000 was raised for the Chapel and other college needs by Upham and 
his helpers, most of it in private donations from New England 
Congregationalists. 

However, the Chapel was not a Congregational church. In his dedication 
speech, Charles Daveis made reference only to the lines in the charter stat- 
ing the College's mission of "the advancement of virtue and piety, as well as 
learning." 5 

By the end of 1 848 almost $32,000 had been spent. Drives undertaken in 
1850 and in 1854 garnered many gifts, among them $ 3 , 1 00 from Mrs. Sarah 
Hale, in whose father's honor Banister Hall, the library section of the 
Chapel, was named; and $1,000 from Theophilus Wheeler Walker, whose 
mother's name, Sophia Walker, was given to the new picture gallery. In all, 
$44,600 was raised for the Chapel; the total cost was $46,790. Upon Gover- 
nor King's death in 1852 it became apparent that his estate could not pay 
the $6,000 pledge. Faculty members, including Thomas Upham, signed 
notes for as much as $ 1 , 5 00 against donations they hoped to secure to make 
up the deficit. 

The project was delayed by lack of funds, but it also suffered the delays of 
any major architectural endeavor. The architect's office was in New York 
City, and the correspondence reveals the College's reliance on his direction 
during what must have seemed long periods of waiting. Upjohn had to 
dispatch supervising masons and roofers to oversee the local workers. 
While Upjohn did not have to oversee the framing and carpentry carried 
out by Samuel Melcher, the local housewright often had to suspend his 



26 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



work while waiting for the other builders to complete their tasks. 

The design, a joint effort of Leonard Woods and Richard Upjohn, was 
complex in function and in symbolism. In particular, it solved the College's 
spatial problems while providing Bowdoin with a monumental structure 
that became the focal point of the quadrangle. In light of their success, it is 
interesting to note a letter of 1 844 from Joseph McKeen to Robert Gardiner 
expressing a concern for the difficulty in designing a building large enough 
to appear respectable between the "great college halls." 6 

Woods was wise to insist upon stone and Upjohn well advised to find a 
way to provide it. The large, irregular grey blocks create an insistent 
strength that is impossible in brick. If there was negotiation over the num- 
ber of towers, Upjohn again carried the day. With ample nineteenth-century 
precedent for a single, central tower or an offset tower, the choice was made 
for twin towers to echo the German Romanesque style of the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries and its nineteenth-century successor, the German Roman- 
esque Revival. For the Bowdoin campus the twin towers are indeed 
impressive; they rise 1 20 feet, almost twice as high as the peak of the nave. 
Nothing mitigates the upward thrust: a vertical row of four tall, narrow, 
round-arched windows leads the eye to the larger, two-part, louvered open- 
ings in the belfries. Above these, the tower walls pull up into gables termi- 
nated by stepped corbels, a strong molding with finials on each point. 
Rising from behind the gables are the four-faced stone spires whose 
summits are crowned by pointed finials. 

In order to accommodate chapel, libraries, and art gallery, Upjohn relied 
on the Latin cross plan of many medieval cathedrals; his adaptation created, 
however, a new set of proportions. The nave (which is the chapel) is flanked 
by two doors which appear to lead into side aisles. In fact, they lead to 
rooms designed for the Peucinian and Athenaean libraries which have no 
direct access to the Chapel. 



Plans and elevations of 
proposed chapel by Joseph 
McKeen, 1844, in a letter 
to Robert H. Gardiner 



^ 



^-<S2fe 



■6~^<~*-^^ ; 



- £^6~r&^v 



ii 




L V • 



J±. 



c. 



3 



iH 

Si 5 



it 




THE QUADRANGLE 



27 




The side elevations suggest a transept, the crossing 
of the T of the nave to separate the high altar of medie- 
val times. Closer examination reveals that Upjohn did 
not extend the transept vertically to the height of the 
nave, nor did he use the full length to the east wall for 
the Chapel. The east end, called Banister Hall, was the 
College's library, with the upper floor housing a meet- 
ing room, a study for the president, and the art collec- 
tion. To signal the separate function of the east end, 
Upjohn changed the rhythm of the first-story fenes- 
tration: the large two-part window is flanked by tall, 
narrow lights like those of the lower. 

The new proportion created by a shorter transept 
has a distinctly classical, rather than medieval cast, 
typical of the German Romanesque Revival. These lateral projections do The Sophia Walker 
not soar as the towers do; they have a rational scale. This effect is enhanced Gallery in the Chapel, 
by the strongly profiled basement, the projecting bracketed window sills, ca. 1889 
and the finials. Upjohn's decision to make the lateral spaces a relatively low 
story, instead of bringing them higher on the nave, allowed for large cler- 
estory windows to light the Chapel. This decision also influenced the pro- 
portion of side windows to wall height. And, while the side doors are nicely 
scaled, the central portal is rather conservative for the height of the nave. 

The interior of the Chapel, and to a lesser extent that of Banister Hall, 
were freighted with Woodsian romanticism. Through his reading and 
through his observations in Europe, Woods was convinced of the impor- 
tance of color, design, and texture. A more complete departure from the 
prototypical New England meeting house cannot be imagined. As much 
as his forebears mistrusted delighting the eye, Woods seems to have felt 
that visual stimulation and pleasure aided exalted thoughts and religious 
contemplation. 

The correspondence confirms the care with which each element was 
planned. The strong influence of the English collegiate chapel is most 
obvious in the lateral ranks of seats, set up to face each other rather than the 
chancel end. Woods concerned himself with finding the appropriate wood 
for the wainscoting; designing the chancel screen; adjusting the stained 
glass colors in the clerestory to allow enough light for reading Scripture; 
deciding on plaster rather than wood for the corbel table; and, finally, 
eliciting a design for the painting of the ceiling, the trusses, and the walls 
above the murals. 

The painting of the interior caused considerable tension between archi- 
tect and client. Gervase Wheeler, another English emigre, recently arrived 
in New York, had experience designing polychrome walls and ceilings. He 



28 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Banister Hall, then the 
college library, 1889 



was a persuasive speaker for the new form of decora- 
tion and was not above outlining Upjohn's deficien- 
cies in this field. 7 In fact, Wheeler designed the 
painted decoration for Banister Hall as an experi- 
ment. By the time the Chapel was ready, Wheeler was 
in disfavor, and William H. Pierson, Jr., feels that the 
plans for the chapel decoration were made by 
Upjohn. 8 The actual painting was done by German 
decorators between summer 1852 and January 1854. 
Before Wheeler left Brunswick, however, he 
designed the Boody- Johnson House (included in the 
Third Walk). 

It was sixty years before the fourteen murals were completed. In a letter 
to Woods, art critic William J. Hoppin advised him that: "We cannot obtain 
pictures which will be perfectly satisfactory. There is too much ignorance, I 
am sorry to say, even among the artists themselves." 9 

Thus, a decision was made to commission copies of great religious paint- 
ings from the past. Those on the north wall are from the New Testament, 
on the south wall from the Old Testament, and on the chancel or east wall, 
two angels after Fra Angelico. Two of the murals are from Michelangelo, 
and five are from Raphael, including the Transfiguration. Some were painted 
directly on the wall, while others were painted on a support that was glued 
to the wall. To Woods, the experience, however filtered, of known master- 
pieces, would educate the worshippers. 

The Bowdoin College Chapel is secure in the continuing authority of its 
design and its effect on the rest of the College and the town of Brunswick. 
Upjohn and Woods created a medieval chapel-library that served both 
formal and utilitarian purposes and was capable of striking awe in the 
beholder. 

Upjohn's work in Maine was not limited to Gardiner's Oaklands and the 
Bowdoin College Chapel. Two houses and a now-destroyed church in 
Bangor predate Oaklands, and there are a number of frame board-and- 
batten Episcopal churches built according to plans published by Upjohn 
for the use of modest parishes. The First Parish Church in Brunswick 
(included in the Third Walk) was designed by Upjohn for the local Congre- 
gationalists while he was working on the Chapel. St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church on Pleasant Street in Brunswick was also designed by him. 



THE QUADRANGLE 29 




Seth Adams Hall 

1861 FRANCIS H. FASSETT 



The frontispiece of the Bowdoin College catalogue for the fall of 1862 is a 
steel engraving of the campus showing the Chapel, Appleton, Maine, and 
Winthrop Halls; a partially obscured Massachusetts Hall; and, behind it, 
the newest building, later to be named for Seth Adams of Boston, who 
received an honorary degree from Bowdoin in 1858. The medical school 
section of the catalogue proudly mentions the new facility but advertises no 
changes in the medical curriculum. 

Although Leonard Woods had long recognized the needs of the medical 
school, he could not address them before the completion of the Chapel. The 
death of Parker Cleaveland in 1858 after his fifty-three years at Bowdoin 
allowed a reevaluation of the medical and science curriculums. The vener- 
able science professor had found Massachusetts Hall entirely adequate for 



30 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



both the Medical School of Maine and undergraduate science courses. His 
successor, however, fresh from Williams College, proposed at least one 
expansion plan before the concept of a new building was agreed upon. Paul 
A. Chadbourne, professor of chemistry and natural history, was at Bowdoin 
only from 1 8 5 8 to 1 86 5 , yet his influence was extensive. In an undated letter 
to President Woods, Chadbourne described and diagrammed space needs 
for departments of chemistry and natural science. j (In 1858 chemistry, min- 
eralogy, natural philosophy, and mathematics made up the science curricu- 
lum at Bowdoin. By 1868 there were courses in chemistry, zoology, geol- 
ogy, natural science, botany, mineralogy, natural philosophy, physics, and 
mathematics.) Chadbourne's first tactic was to urge the conversion of 
Commons Hall, a brick structure on Bath Street built at the end of the 
1820s. In 1859, undoubtedly with impetus from Chadbourne, and with 
the help of Governing Boards members and the Maine medical community, 
the College persuaded the state legislature to grant one-half of a township 
toward the construction of a new building. Cash from the sale of the land 
was to pay for the building. 

The proposed building was envisioned as both the primary medical 
school facility and the laboratory for undergraduate science courses. For 
traditional believers in a sound classical education, a medical school must 
have been a practical concession, as its site demonstrates. Adams Hall is not 
in the quadrangle, nor is it in line with any buildings or at a calculated 
distance from other buildings. In fact, the New College (as Adams was 
called until 1866) was built on a triangle of land bounded by Bath Street 
and Harpswell Street. It was conveniently located but clearly not wholly 
integrated into the College. 

Both the site and the dual purpose influenced the architect's placement of 
entrances. One occupies the long facade toward the College and originally 
led to a staircase to the medical school; the other faces what was once the 
apex of the Delta and led to the science facilities for undergraduates. 
Chosen as architect was Francis Henry Fassett of Bath, at thirty-eight 
already an experienced designer of frame and masonry Greek Revival, 
Gothic Revival, and Italianate structures. 

The contract between the College and the principal contractors, James 
Pouliard and James Haley of Bath, stipulates the use of plans and drawings 
already made by Fassett and contains a construction timetable. 2 Pouliard 
was responsible for all masonry work and plastering; Haley for carpentry, 
joining, plumbing, painting, iron work, and finishing. Together they were 
to be paid $1 1,576. No record of payment to Fassett has been discovered, 
nor are there documents about the choice of style for the building. 

What is quite clear is the timeliness of Fassett's choice of the Italianate 
style. Coincident with the need for new and larger institutional and com- 



THE QUADRANGLE 



31 




mercial buildings in this country was 
the emergence of the style derived 
from Italian Renaissance urban palaces 
and rural villas. By way of early Victo- 
rian England, a stylistic vocabulary of 
pediments, cornices, columns, pilas- 
ters, quoins, consoles, and arched 
openings furnished the imaginative 
architect with the makings of a robust, 
often sculptural style. Fassett had com- 
bined the new elements into a now- 
demolished high school in Bath. After 
Adams Hall, he designed the Sagadahoc County Courthouse on High 
Street in Bath in the same style. 

Adams Hall is a three and one-half-story brick rectangle topped by a 
pitched roof whose end peaks were once finished in tall finials. The exterior 
is divided visually by a strong projecting brick belt course between the first 
and second stories: the first assumes the role of the basement story, while 
the second becomes the piano nobile. The second and third floors are com- 
bined on the exterior into one very tall area by shallow, two-story segmental 
arches which create something of the rhythm of a colonnade. Above each 
entranceway was originally a balustraded balcony supported by carved 
consoles; the south one reached across all three central bays. In addition, 
the semi-octagonal east end bay bore a crowning balustrade. Thus, 
although the building is quite simple in overall silhouette, the original 
embellishments imparted a more strongly sculptural appearance. 

The quoins which mark the corners and the round segmental arches 
which cap the doors and windows were originally painted or covered with 
mastic. Probably the color matched the sandstone keystones. The cornices 
and window moldings were probably a similar color and not the present 
bright white. 

The new canon of proportions that accompanied Italianate details called 
for ceilings at least twelve feet high. The height of each story is emphasized 
on the exterior by the tall, narrow, paired windows and the chimney stacks. 
Although there may be some argument for the practicality of these propor- 
tions for lecture halls, libraries, and dissecting rooms, the fact is that in 
domestic Italianate buildings, drawing rooms and kitchens had equally 
lofty ceilings. 

Paul Chadbourne probably also influenced the design of the interior. He 
was a member of the building committee, and President Woods praised his 
contribution in the address at the opening. The semi-octagonal projecting 
bay on the east facade provided Chadbourne with the only private study for 



Fred L. Varnej, 
Herbert W. Hall, 
Magnus G. Ridlon, 
Roland B. Moore, 
Alfred L,. Sawyer, 
and Karl B. Sturgis 
dissecting a body at the 
Medical School of Maine 
in 190 j. All except 
Hall graduated from the 
Medical School of Maine 
in ipoy; Hall graduated 
in 1908. 



32 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



a professor on the campus, according to the recollection of Clement F. 
Robinson '03, son of Professor of Chemistry Franklin C. Robinson, class of 

1873. 3 

Shortly after the construction of Adams Hall, Fassett moved to Portland, 
where his prolific career continued until his death in 1908. There he 
designed the former Portland Public Library and the Maine General Hospi- 
tal. Ironically, this last institution was an important factor in the decision to 
disband the Medical School of Maine in 1920. Among the considerations 
was the distance between Brunswick and the city of Portland, with its 
technical and medical resources. But at the time it was built, Seth Adams 
Hall offered modern spaces, modern equipment, and a totally modern phi- 
losophy of teaching sciences. It was also the first solely instructional build- 
ing at Bowdoin. 

At the July 31 and August 1, 1866, meeting of the Governing Boards, 
three matters of particular significance were discussed. A vote was made to 
name the "new college" for Seth Adams, a Boston sugar refiner whose 
contribution had aided the construction; the resignation of President Leo- 
nard Woods was regretfully accepted; and deliberations were recorded over 
a site for a new building, Memorial Hall. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



33 




Memorial Hall 



1867-1882 SAMUEL D. BACKUS; WILLIAM G. PRESTON 



Pickard Theater 



1955 



McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 



The construction of Memorial Hall generated more meetings, minutes, 
votes, and printed material than that of any of Bowdoin's other nineteenth- 
century buildings. It was a project plagued with difficulties. During the 
seventeen years from its conception to its dedication, it was the only build- 
ing project on the campus, and with good reason, for the post-Civil War 
decades were financially difficult. 

Despite fiscal stress, there was a widespread urge in New England to 
build Civil War memorials. For colleges the task was to invent suitable 
buildings, while towns simply raised statues or mounted cannons. Yale held 
a competition in 1 866 for a needed chapel. The result was Russell Sturgis's 
Battell Chapel, which still stands on the corner of Elm and the Green. 



34 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Memorial Hall, 1884 



Wesleyan also built a memorial chapel, and 
Colby College's Memorial Hall, dedicated in 
1869 but no longer standing, was the first 
college war memorial to be finished. 

Harvard's Memorial Hall had a history 
similar in one respect to that of Bowdoin's 
Memorial Hall. At both Harvard and Bow- 
doin the alumni undertook, for the first 
time, major fund raising and a major build- 
ing project. At Harvard as at Yale, an archi- 
tectural competition was held. 
William Smyth, class of 1822, was professor of mathematics at the Col- 
lege and an active citizen of Brunswick, where he concerned himself with 
the public schools and the First Parish Church. His home on College Street 
was a stop on the underground railroad. This man of conviction dedicated 
himself to the building of Memorial Hall. Between 1865 and 1867 he raised 
twenty thousand dollars toward its construction. 

The choice of the site was considered carefully during 1 866. l It was to be 
west of Massachusetts Hall and on a line with the north end of Winthrop 
Hall. This decision meant the abandonment of the row concept and the 
beginning of the quadrangle. 

During 1 867, a three-way correspondence among Nehemiah Cleaveland, 
class of 1 8 1 3, Samuel D. Backus, a New York architect, and Smyth reveals a 
persistent problem encountered in this extended building campaign. 2 
Smyth wanted an architect to design an impressive exterior, while he 
himself would act as contractor, clerk of the works, and designer of the 
interior. Smyth maintained control by disposing of the architect chosen 
by Dexter Hawkins, class of 1848, the first president of the alumni, and 
eliminating Leopold Eidlitz, another architect, who had submitted prelimi- 
nary sketches. Smyth's own choice was Samuel Backus, an associate of 
Cleaveland's son. 

The correspondence for this planning period deals with the delicate 
problem with Hawkins and reveals a growing tension with Backus. On 
February 17, 1867, in a letter to Cleaveland, Backus wrote: 

I think the Professor's ideas of proportion are a little heterodox . . . one and a half 
widths is little enough for the length it seems to me — and more length in propor- 
tion I have always supposed to be considered by all critics as desirable. ... I believe 
our American ideas of fronts came in part from shallow town lots and in part from a 
characteristic spirit of ostentation — The white house with red brick style of build- 
ing. I mean that our habits of thinking come in this way. . . . 3 



Smyth wished "to combine in Memorial Hall the qualities of a picture 
gallery and an auditorium." 4 His plan for the building, which was to con- 



THE QUADRANGLE 35 



tain classroom space as well, prevailed. Although he died in 1 868, with only 
the foundation dug, his original impetus continued to 1 870, when the walls 
and roof were in place. During the next ten years the construction stood 
still. 

General Joshua Chamberlain became president in 1871 and brought to 
his alma mater a number of new ideas including military drill. Physical 
training had become an organized part of college life shortly before the 
Civil War. In 1873 both gymnasium and President Chamberlain's military 
drill were moved into the unfinished Memorial Hall. 

The building still had only walls and a roof and window openings. 5 
Professor of Engineering George Vose, when asked how to increase the 
heat in a building with cloth stretched over the openings, replied that they 
had better remove the fabric and heat the out-of-doors. A disappointed 
alumnus wrote to the Orient in 1876: "A visitor to Brunswick reports that 
the windows of Bowdoin Memorial Hall have pine boards for panes and 
that within all is incompleteness." 6 

At Bowdoin, the history of Memorial Hall's construction mirrors the 
early vicissitudes of the newly formed alumni group. Throughout this 
period the alumni organization was becoming a force in college affairs. The 
alumni owned the building and rented it to the College for the physical 
training classes. In 1877 the recently incorporated Bowdoin Alumni 
Memorial Hall Association voted to give the structure to the College. The 
Boards refused the offer. In the meantime individuals had undertaken part 
of the debt. Finally, deliverance came in 1879 when the alumni learned of 
the generous gift of twenty thousand dollars from Valeria G. Stone of 
Maiden, Massachusetts. Mrs. Stone, a benefactor also of newly founded 
Wellesley College, specified that the Boards must accept the structure, that 
part of her gift should finish the building, and that the rest of her gift should 
go to establish the Stone Professorship of Intellectual and Moral 
Philosophy. 

Finally, serious attention could be given to completing the building. 
Francis Fassett, architect of Adams Hall, was called in to consult with 
Professor Vose. In addition to the creation of the necessary interior spaces, 
there was also remedial work to be done. Several architects in Boston were 
asked to bid as well: N. J. Bradlee, Carl Fehmer, William G. Preston, and 
the firm of Peabody and Stearns. It is not clear who was chosen, although 
interior plans and elevations by Preston dated 1 880 have recently emerged. 7 
Exterior changes were made to Backus's original plan. The Orient reported 
in 1 88 1, "the great windows of the main story are to be cut down two feet, 
for the better effect of the interior." 8 Interior reinforcing of the stone walls 
was also necessary, and for this Mrs. Stone added five thousand dollars to 
her original gift. 



36 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



The building was dedicated in 1882. It contained two classrooms and a 
large lecture hall on the first floor. The second floor was a large meeting hall 
that could hold the entire College. Seven years later, General Thomas H. 
Hubbard, an alumnus who was a member of the Board of Overseers and 
was to become a benefactor of great importance to Bowdoin, gave the 
bronze memorial plaques dedicating the building to those who had served 
during the Civil War. 

Memorial Hall was called, during its construction, "French Gothic," a 
romantic rather than a specific descriptive phrase. While there are rather 
general Gothic details and medieval inspiration, the building reflects a 
variety of nineteenth-century ideas. 

Where Harvard had reluctantly substituted brick for stone in its Memo- 
rial Hall, Bowdoin stood firm. The visual identification with the Upjohn 
Chapel and the symbolic attributes of stone were two important reasons for 
Smyth's choice of granite. The pointed Gothic door and windows echoed 
Upjohn's First Parish Church only sixty yards away. The Mansard or 
double-pitched hipped roof sits uneasily on the Gothic details below. Per- 
haps that roof form was an inexpensive way to get a full third story. The 
entranceway, with the projecting towerlike area reaching up into the 
roofiine, appears to be derived from Italianate villas of the sort shown in 
Andrew Jackson Downing's The Architecture of Country Houses, but for 
Downing's round-arched opening and flat tower roof, Backus substituted 
pointed forms. 9 Originally the entranceway was deep and shadowy, with 
dark wooden doors recessed behind the plane of the pointed portico. The 
entranceway was one of the handsome features of the building. As the trees 
around it grew and Memorial gained its share of ivy, it had, for a while, the 
romantic air of collegiate Gothic. 

The entranceway, window mullions, and roof were darker than they are 
now, adding a play of light and shade, if not actual color, to a rather simple 
building. 

The Gothic here, however, has never been soaring. A lingering classi- 
cism, present also in the Chapel, is responsible. The strongly projecting 
bracketed stringcourses above the first and second stories emphasize the 
horizontal and lessen the vertical thrust. Memorial Hall is a reminder that 
tastes for Gothic, Mansard, and Italianate existed concurrently in the 
United States. 

The handsome stained glass window to the left of the entranceway of 
Memorial Hall is a testament to a well-known Maine family. Writer Sarah 
Orne Jewett was given an honorary Doctor of Letters in 1901, the first 
woman so honored by Bowdoin College. Her father was Dr. Theodore H. 
Jewett, of the class of 1834, and a former member of the Medical School of 
Maine faculty. In 1902, Miss Jewett's good friend Sarah Whitman designed, 



THE QUADRANGLE 37 



made, and gave the window, which is dedicated to the memory of Dr. 
Jewett. 

The most significant change to Memorial Hall came in the 1950s, when 
the building was converted into a theater. In the early years of the College 
plays were forbidden; after the ban was lifted there was still an attempt at 
censorship. But from 1909, with the founding of the Masque and Gown, 
the student drama group, there was a need for a proper stage. One notion 
was to finish Memorial's third story, and another was to take over Com- 
mons. In 1934, President Kenneth Sills, recognizing and encouraging 
theater production, hired George H. Quinby '2 3 to return to his alma mater 
as a member of the Department of English in charge of dramatic 
productions. 

The enthusiasm and dedicated work of Quinby and his students resulted 
in successful productions, wherever they had to be held, and in serious 
student play writing. By 1952, a generous donor, Frederick W. Pickard, 
class of 1 894, had made possible the complete remodeling of Memorial Hall 
into a theater with rehearsal rooms and all the spaces necessary for theatri- 
cal productions. 

McKim, Mead and White, which had provided a drawing for a separate 
theater building in 1946, became the architects for the remodeling, which 
was dedicated in 1955. Memorial was rehabilitated chiefly because the Col- 
lege would have been "forced to maintain a [new] building which would be 
rarely occupied" if a special building had been built. 10 There seems never to 
have been talk of demolition. In any event, the remodeling of Memorial 
Hall resolved some of the interior problems inherited from its difficult 
inception. The bronze plaques are now in the lobby, although the foliated 
borders are inexplicably covered by paneling. The Jewett window con- 
tinues to reward the careful observer. It is regrettable that the reworking 
wrought such changes on the entranceway, which had been the most suc- 
cessful element of Backus's design. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE 39 



Mary Frances Searles 
Science "Building 

1894 HENRY VAUGHAN 

The story of Bowdoin's third medieval revival building could not provide 
greater contrast with that of its immediate predecessor, Memorial Hall. 
The Mary Frances Searles Science Building was completed in one building 
campaign, it was designed by one architect, and it was given by one donor. 

The science building's relatively uncomplicated history began in 1 892 in 
the first printed Report of the President to the Trustees and Overseers to be issued 
by Bowdoin College. In his report covering the academic year 1 891-1892, 
President Hyde not only described specific needs for chemistry, physics, 
and biology, but further suggested that the three departments be housed in 
one building. Eighteen days later, on June 21, 1892, President Hyde 
received a letter outlining the gift of a science building to Bowdoin 
College. 1 

General Thomas H. Hubbard, Trustee and donor of the memorial 
plaques which had recently been installed in Memorial Hall, offered the gift 
on behalf of his client, Edward F. Searles. Searles married the widow of 
railroad tycoon Mark Hopkins in 1887, after four years of acquaintance. 
The building was to be named in honor of Mr. Searles's wife, who had died 
in 1 891 . When she left her considerable fortune to Mr. Searles, the will was 
contested, and General Hubbard successfully defended Searles's right. 
Surely Hubbard suggested Bowdoin's need; Searles, in any event, was gen- 
erous with his wealth. 

The letter of gift specified three conditions: the construction should 
begin immediately and proceed without delay; the project was to be done in 
consultation with Mr. Searles or an architect appointed by him; and the 
total cost was to be about sixty thousand dollars. 

Henry Vaughan, an architect already known to Searles, had plans ready 
for inclusion in the Report of the President; the building was dedicated in 
September 1894. Keeping within the budget, however, proved difficult. 
Woodbury and Leighton of Boston, the successful contractors, reduced 
their original bid by twenty-three thousand dollars. They urged Vaughan 
to "omit moulded brick, except on the terret [sic] corners." 2 Vaughan 
submitted new elevations that reduced the stone work around the win- 
dows. The agreement finally reached, however, called for almost twice the 
amount originally stated in the letter of gift. 



4° 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Above the principal 
entrance, Mary Frances 
Searles Science Building. 
Photograph by Richard 
Cheek. 



The correspondence that remains 
reveals much about the confrontation 
between the design process and the 
budget, the negotiating between archi- 
tect and client and between architect and 
contractor. 3 The documentation is frag- 
mentary, for Vaughan's office records 
are gone. One thing is clear: Vaughan, 
whatever changes he had to make from 
his original plans, produced an unusually interesting building. This design 
displays the same careful thought — a sort of design patience — as do the 
best of his works. Although architects, like musicians, are likely to quote 
their own felicitous phrases, the balance of massing and details is uniquely 
solved. 

Vaughan was born and trained in England. When he left England for 
America in 1881, he was chief draughtsman for George Frederick Bodley, a 
leading architect of collegiate structures and Anglican churches. Like 
Upjohn before him, Vaughan was an Anglican in architecture and religion. 
He belongs to the later group of Ecclesiologists in England and fits com- 
fortably with the Boston Gothicists in America. Among the church and 
chapel commissions carried out by Vaughan is the Cathedral Church of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, the National (Episcopal) Cathedral in Washington, D.C., 
which he worked on with his former mentor, George Bodley. 

Although Vaughan already had completed designs in Maine (St. 
Andrew's Church and the John Glidden House, Newcastle; the pulpit and 
chancel rail for the Cathedral Church of St. Luke in Portland; and, contem- 
poraneously with Searles Science Building, St. James Church in Old 
Town), his selection as architect for the Bowdoin College building was the 
result of his well-established professional friendship with Edward Searles, 
for whom he continued to design structures of various sorts. 

Vaughan was an excellent choice. While the majority of his work was 
ecclesiastical, his sure grasp of architectural massing and his encyclopedia 
of appropriate details make Searles, his first science building, an outstand- 
ing success. In spite of budgetary constraints, a clear sense of monumental- 
ity and a controlled taste for textural richness distinguish Vaughan's work 
on Searles. 

Although each department — biology, chemistry, and physics — had its 
own entrance and interior rooms, the tripartite division is not the main 
design motif. It did provide the inspiration for a building of picturesque 
complexity with a ground plan that requires the observer to circle the 
building to appreciate its intricacy. The dominant horizontal extension on 
the quadrangle side gives way on the street side to a service courtyard 



THE QUADRANGLE 



41 




enclosed by the building on three sides. Vaughan evolved this plan in order 
to provide the two laboratory-lecture hall rear wings with maximum 
daylight. 

Vaughan composed the principal facade, on the quadrangle, in several 
interlocking sections. The central portion incorporates two narrow octago- 
nal towers that extend the full height into the projecting gable. To either 
side is a recessed area four bays wide, each terminating in a straight-sided 
gable lower than that of the central position. On either side beyond is a 
projecting four-bay mass, narrower than its neighbor but capped by a gen- 
erous curved Dutch gable. In turn, these sections are flanked by octagonal 
crenellated turrets. 

These substantial and picturesque elements also create a handsome tran- 
sition to the north and south facades, which contained, respectively, 
entrances to the Departments of Physics and Chemistry. (The Department 
of Chemistry is now in Cleaveland Hall. The Departments of Physics and 
Biology are in Searles.) The end pieces terminate in the broadest of the 
gables. The observant visitor will see that the north and south facades are 
not mirror images, nor did Vaughan choose to put the entranceway in the 
center, as he had on the principal facade. A close look at the cupola from the 
west, or rear, facade will show that the wings are not centered. The cupola, 
with its forthright classical forms and white paint, may look out of place, 
crowning a neo-Gothic structure. 



Mary Frances Searles 
Science building under 
construction, 1894 



42 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



The rear gables and windows are as neoclassic as the front gables are 
Gothic. When he was forced to eliminate much of the proposed stone 
window "trimmings" (his word) from the principal facade, Vaughan com- 
mented that this would make less contrast between the front and the rear. 4 
He meant, of course, decorative, not stylistic difference. Jacobethan is 
Henry-Russell Hitchcock's term for this totally successful hybrid, a transi- 
tional phase of English architecture which includes lingering Gothic and 
nascent Renaissance elements. 5 As this style influenced late nineteenth- 
century design, particularly in college buildings and country houses, it was 
gradually transformed into the picturesque asymmetry of the Queen Anne 
style. 

The significance of Vaughan's work here is in the ease and grace of his 
combinations. He chose Amherst sandstone to outline the gables, turrets, 
principal entrances, and adjacent windows, to mark the stringcourses, and 
to make decorative reliefs and finials. The original brick was painted red in 
the 1950s, the better to harmonize with both the oldest and the newest 
Bowdoin buildings. The contractors had suggested to Vaughan that he 
change his specification for brick, but he kept to a yellow or buff brick with 
stone trim, a combination he had used elsewhere. One thing he surely did 
not want was a bland surface. All of his work shows a lively interest in 
texture and color, and Searles is no exception, as is convincingly demon- 
strated by the staccato rhythms of the roofline. 

The donor and the College were content with the finished building. It 
put Bowdoin in the forefront of the construction of new science facilities 
for expanded curricula, and it was a thoroughly collegiate building, as that 
word was understood on campuses in much of the country in the 1890s. 
Henry Vaughan was given an honorary degree in 1894, as was Charles 
Follen McKim, whose Walker Art Building had been under construction 
during the work on Searles. President Hyde could, indeed, celebrate the 
beginning of the College's second hundred years. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



43 




Walker Art Building 

1894 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

In April 1891 President Hyde's mind was firmly fixed on science facilities 
for Bowdoin. Also in April of 189 1 the minds of the Misses Harriet Sarah 
and Mary Sophia Walker were firmly fixed on giving a building to Bowdoin 
College exclusively for art. On August 1, 1891, President Hyde informally 
and graciously accepted their gift. The Governing Boards met September 
1 7 to vote acceptance formally. President Hyde would have almost a year to 
wait for a science building. 

The Misses Walker had turned to William Northend, class of 1848, a 
lawyer of Salem, Massachusetts, and an Overseer of the College. Mr. 
Northend was a friend of Henry Johnson, class of 1874, professor of 
modern languages at Bowdoin from 1877 until his death in 191 8. Johnson 
also served as librarian from 1880 to 1885, as curator of the art collection 
from 1 88 1 to 1887 and from 189210 19 14, and as director of the art museum 
from 1 9 14 to 191 8. As early as 1885, Northend had expressed to Johnson 



44 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




The original door of the 
Walker Art building 



his interest in the collection and his abiding concern for 
the welfare of the College. Northend, whose notes are 
sprightly and always written in haste, corresponded also 
with George T. Little, Henry Johnson's assistant librar- 
ian from 1883 to 1885 and his successor as librarian until 
191 5, curator of the art collection between 1887 and 
1892, and a friend of Northend's son. 

The art collection was a source of both pride and anxi- 
ety from the earliest days of the College. James Bowdoin 
III had left the College European and American paint- 
ings and copies of paintings as well as a rich deposit of 
European drawings. Later, Bowdoin family portraits 
painted in America were added. Rarely was there a 
boards meeting or any other official gathering at which 
the collection, its care and possible exhibition, were not 
mentioned. The collection went from Massachusetts 
Hall to the old Chapel and then into the new Chapel. During its lengthy 
construction, Memorial Hall was frequently mentioned as yet a fourth site 
for the collection. 

President Woods charged Richard Upjohn with providing space for the 
collection in the new Chapel. Old photographs of the chapel gallery reveal 
the walls covered with paintings at least three deep and floor space given 
over to plaster copies of Greek and Roman sculpture. 

In 1885 Professor Henry Johnson published a list of the drawings in the 
collection. This list was the first part of a catalogue of the collections. 
President Hyde sent a copy to Charles Eliot Norton, an influential profes- 
sor of art history at Harvard, who graciously responded to Johnson. 1 The 
catalogue was doubtless a preliminary move in the campaign to get an art 
building for Bowdoin. 

Northend had been trying to find funding for an art building for many 
years. In a letter to Johnson of July 14, 1891, he says: 

I probably differ from many in regard to the utility of the work. I believe the future 
will prove that the building and contents will be of great practical use to the College 
besides adding much to its attractions. It has been a hobby of mine for many years 
and I am delighted that the work, almost Providentially, is to be completed. It must 
be more than ten years ago I first suggested it to Mr. Walker, and have never 
forgotten it when I met him. 2 

Theophilus Wheeler Walker was a first cousin of Leonard Woods and the 
donor of $1,000 for the completion of the Chapel. He was a successful 
merchant, shipper, and entrepreneur, in business with his younger brother, 
Nathaniel. He never married and left a large share of his fortune and his 
house, Gore Place, in Waltham, Massachusetts, to two of his nieces, Harriet 



THE QUADRANGLE 45 



Sarah and Mary Sophia Walker. It was not many months after his death in 
1890 that the Misses Walker were corresponding with Mr. Northend. 

The knowledge and taste of the Walker sisters is evident; their education 
and lives are still mysterious. They lived part of the year on Beacon Street, 
they collected paintings and objects of various sorts, and they knew exactly 
whom to choose as architect for the new building. 

Before writing to Charles Follen McKim of the architectural firm 
McKim, Mead and White, the Misses Walker and Mr. Northend came to 
Brunswick, where they met President Hyde, George Little, and Henry 
Johnson. Clearly the purpose was to confirm the site already suggested by 
George Little in an early April 1891 letter to William Northend: "Build on 
the rise near the south end of the campus a structure that would be the 
architectural feature of the college grounds." 3 The site was chosen with as 
much care as that of the Chapel. It is difficult to ignore either the symbolic 
importance of the rising ground or the isolation from other buildings. 
Searles followed quickly, but was still set apart from the art building. Had 
there been any question about the configuration the campus was to assume, 
the quadrangle was settled in 1891. 

Harriet and Sophia Walker were equal partners in this extraordinary 
project. Harriet wrote to McKim in July of 1891 outlining the program 
they wanted: 

My sister and I wish to carry out our uncle's thought by erecting and dedicating to 
his memory a building which shall be entirely devoted to art. Most of the Art 
Galleries in this country seem most unhappy in their treatment, not in the least in 
harmony with the treasures they contain. Our idea is a building that shall be not 
only appropriate as a memorial, but will also show the purpose for which it is to be 
used — We thought of a fireproof building of one story, of course upon a raised 
foundation or basement. The effect in color to be light — . 4 

McKim was delighted to accept the commission. He wrote on August 10 
from the steamer City of Paris: 

I have never been to Bowdoin nor do I remember to have heard its buildings 
described but assuming them to be similar in character to those of other early New 
England Colleges, it is pleasant to reflect that, however simple, a balanced and 
symmetrical design will be more likely to be at home amongst them, than any other. 5 

August 27 found George Little sending photographs of the college 
buildings and the First Parish Church "so that Mr. McKim may have an 
idea of the styles of architecture already represented." 6 It is useful to reflect 
on the sophistication and sense of historical distance implicit in that 
remark. America's centennial had made retrospection possible; shortly 
Bowdoin's centennial would be crowned by the dedication of two new 
buildings. 



4 6 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Interior of the Bowdoin 
Gallery, Walker Art 
Building, ca. 1900. 
Photograph courtesy Bow- 
doin College Museum of 
Art. 




The choice of McKim illustrates that the Walker sisters were well in- 
formed and that they were willing to pay for what most considered the best 
architecture available. Charles Follen McKim, by this time forty-four years 
old, had studied in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts and had worked in 
Boston for Henry Hobson Richardson. Early independent McKim work 
reveals his debt to Richardson's aesthetic in both stone and shingle. Both 
Richardson and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts influenced McKim's evolution of 
a personal style that brought other arts into architectural planning. But 
McKim moved away from Richardson's palette and asymmetry to evolve an 
endlessly inventive classical vocabulary. 

During the design and construction of the Walker Art Building, the firm 
was working on the Boston Public Library, the Rhode Island State House, 
Low Library at Columbia University, the Brooklyn Museum, and the 
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. They were, in effect, creating 
the Classical Revival in American architecture, drawing upon ancient, Ren- 
aissance, and eighteenth-century forms and plans to raise imposing struc- 
tures. When Harriet Walker stipulated a light colored building and McKim 
responded with "a balanced and symmetrical design," all had been said. 

The Walker Art Building is smaller than it looks. The facade extends one 
hundred feet; the height to the cornice is thirty-three feet and to the top of 
the dome fifty-three feet or just over one-half the length. For comparison, 
Searles Science Building is one hundred seventy-two feet across the facade 
and about seventy feet high at the gables. 

McKim magnified the slight rise of the site by resting the building on a 
terrace, and he used the broad steps to widen, visually, the central recessed 
loggia that shades the entrance. With a dome narrower than the loggia, he 



THE QUADRANGLE 47 



crowned the strong central axis. Nowhere did he allow sheer mass to substi- 
tute for careful articulation. His strong stone basement rests on the terrace; 
above it the tripartite facade is divided by a stone stringcourse into piano 
nobile and attic areas. In the absence of windows, the flanking areas — the 
Boyd and Bowdoin galleries on the inside — are defined by inscribed 
plaques and rectangular niches for bronze sculptures. In the loggia the 
architrave above the columns continues the vertical division, while the area 
above holds rondels aligned with the inscribed tablets. 

All accounts during construction of the building are quite specific about 
the materials used: the Indiana limestone, "selected brick of dark color," 
and the Freeport granite of the terrace. The color difference between the 
cold grey granite and the warmer sandy limestone was very important. 
Whether McKim chose brick in deference to Bowdoin's earliest buildings 
or in deference to the budget, he made an inspired choice. The materials 
— brick, limestone, granite, copper, and bronze — become decorative ele- 
ments in their own right. The result is one of McKim's more decoratively 
restrained buildings, which bears its formality with a certain lightness. 

There are many details to note: the sensuous carved volute that crowns 
the Palladian arch, the exterior shape of the dome with its copper crest, 
the clarity of the quoins, the careful shaping and fluting of the columns, 
and the glimpse of skylights over the galleries. In appreciating these details, 
the observer realizes the strong sculptural quality of this building. The 
recessed loggia with its play of light and shade best demonstrates McKim's 
sense of plasticity. In this as well as in other details, he seems more indebted 
to Palladio than to any other single source. McKim's is not an exact quota- 
tion, but rather displays a similar sense of proportion and a similar sense of 
the interaction between the structure and its surroundings. 

The design of the art building included sculpture and painting as well as 
architecture: this integration of the arts is seen as well in the Walker Art 
Building's closest architectural relative, McKim's Pierpont Morgan 
Library in New York. 

The colors McKim used on the exterior reappear in the loggia. This area 
was painted in a deep terra cotta with gold borders by Elmer E. Garnsey. 
Inside, the rotunda contains lunette murals by four of the best-known 
painters of the time: Elihu Vedder, Kenyon Cox, Abbott Thayer, and John 
La Farge. The murals are allegorical representations of Rome, Venice, 
Florence, and Athens, the centers of art. On the floor of the rotunda, the 
pavement of brick and stone continues themes begun on the exterior. 

Sabatino de Angelis, a Neapolitan sculptor, made the bronze copies of 
the antique Sophocles on the left and Demosthenes on the right for the 
facade niches. The sculptors of the lions (taken from those in the Loggia dei 
Lanzi in Florence although placed in reverse directions) and the rondel 



48 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



busts (the Hermes of Praxiteles on the left, a Dionysus on the right, and 
Homer over the door) are unrecorded. A profusion of plaster casts origi- 
nally filled the Sculpture Hall, as the rotunda was called when it was first 
built. This central space opens on the right to the Bowdoin Gallery and on 
the left to the Boyd Gallery. Directly across from the entrance is the oval 
Sophia Walker Gallery, where a bronze bas-relief portrait of Theophilus 
Wheeler Walker by Daniel Chester French, a friend and collaborator of 
Charles McKim's, is installed in the wall. The new building, of course, 
attracted gifts from other donors; the 1885 catalogue was followed by 
another in 1903. After only a few years, Henry Johnson added two recur- 
ring themes to his annual report: the necessity for thoughtful, planned 
growth of the collections and the need for an art history curriculum. 7 The 
catalogue for the academic year 1912 1913 lists the first course in art his- 
tory, putting Bowdoin among the first colleges to develop a curriculum for 
the history of art. 

The dedication of the building was held in June of 1894, the College's 
centennial year. Plans were as careful for this event as for the whole enter- 
prise. Martin Brimmer, longtime president of the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts, was invited to make the principal speech. He spoke at length about 
architecture and the question of styles, referred to the Puritan mistrust of 
art, and said: "Art is not a mere illustration of history; it is history itself in 
its authentic form of original documents." 8 

This building is a document of taste and thought that has remained 
virtually unchanged on the exterior. Inside, the rotunda has been repainted 
in close to the original color after a period of pale green, and the plaster 
casts are gone. The galleries are painted, lighted, and hung in the taste of 
today. Extensive renovations to the underground floor were carried out as 
part of the construction of the Visual Arts Center. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



49 




Hubbard Hall 

1903 HENRY VAUGHAN 



A drawing of Hubbard Hall was reproduced as the frontispiece of the 
Report of the President for 1 900-1 901. President Hyde wrote: 

In planning this structure, now in the process of erection, the donor, General 
Thomas H. Hubbard, and his architect, Henry Vaughan, Esq., of Boston, have 
spared neither time nor money to secure every material facility for making the 
library the true center of the institution, a rendezvous for both instructors and 
undergraduates, a place for study, for investigation, for instruction, and for literary 
recreation; They have striven to complete the quadrangle with a building that in its 
character as a memorial would not compare unfavorably with its fellows, and at the 
same time would supply ample fireproof accommodation for the largest and most 
valuable collection of books in the State. 

President Hyde's enunciation of the library's role in the educational process 
was a declaration of a clean cut with the past. The classical education with 
its timeless certainties in which early Bowdoin took pride had given way to 
a curriculum that recognized an expanding body of knowledge. The new 
library was the physical embodiment of an educational philosophy that 



5° 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




A sundial on Hubbard 
Hall. Photograph by 
Richard Cheek. 



owed much to the sciences and to the influence of the 
German universities. Other colleges were building addi- 
tions and redesigning interiors: the Widener Library at 
Harvard was not built until ten years after Hubbard Hall, 
but Harvard did enlarge the library in Gore Hall in the 
meantime. Reserve books for course assignments had 
been used since 1871, and elective courses became wide- 
spread in the 1880s. At Yale by this time two buildings 
had been joined to the Old Library (today D wight Hall) 
of 1842. Columbia College, shortly to become a univer- 
sity, moved its campus during the 1890s, and its new 
library, Low, was designed by Charles Follen McKim. 

McKim and Henry Vaughan had both received honorary degrees at 
Bowdoin's centennial commencement. 1 The choice of Vaughan rather than 
McKim to design the new library surprised no one. General Hubbard had 
worked with him, of course, during the building of the Searles Science 
Building. 

There are many letters from Hubbard and Vaughan in the Bowdoin 
College library's Special Collections. Most frequently the donor and the 
architect were writing to George Little. Little most certainly worked long 
and hard with President Hyde to evolve the plan for the new library. It fell 
to him to make plans and to oversee the construction. 

Hubbard was no less involved with the project. Thomas Hamlin 
Hubbard, class of 1857, had been brought up in Hallowell. His father, a 
physician, was twice governor of Maine. After a distinguished career in the 
Civil War, General Hubbard returned to the practice of law in New York 
City. His interest in railroads included numerous business ventures with 
Collis P. Huntington and led to his friendship with Edward Searles. His 
donations to his alma mater had first taken form in the bronze tablets for 
Memorial Hall, then in the new science building, and now in the new 
library. To judge from his letters, he was as enthusiastic about the edu- 
cational program the library plans represented as he was about the con- 
struction of a relatively monumental building. His concern with detail was 
as great as his wish that the building not be stinted by lack of money. 

The site of the building had been chosen as early as 1896, in President 
Hyde's Report: "The southern portion of the campus is the only suitable 
site for a new library building, since future growth may cause that structure 
to eventually form a quadrangle." The gift was announced in 1900, and for 
the next fifteen months plans were drawn, revised, changed, and discussed. 
The building was sent to bid in May 1901, begun that autumn, and dedi- 
cated almost two years later. The low bid was $217,699; the reported final 
cost was $300,000. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



51 




A gargoyle on Hubbard 
Hall. Photograph by 
Richard Cheek. 



The site President Hyde had in mind was well south of the completed 
building; Hubbard wrote George Little in 1901 on this point. 2 The choice 
of an area farther north (which, in any event, had to be filled and graded), 
made the quadrangle almost complete, while there remained land on the 
southern edge for future use. 

Vaughan and Little were also preoccupied with the expense of the build- 
ing. Numerous suggestions for saving money were made; eliminating one 
story was tried. Hubbard appears to have had difficulty convincing the 
others that he was willing to pay to make the building sufficiently commo- 
dious and aesthetically pleasing. In his own words the building "need not 
have embellishment that is merely for show; but it should have appropriate 
ornament." 3 The one-story elevation with steep roof quite simply did not 
look agreeable to Hubbard. 

Vaughan returned to his original scheme, a T-shaped building with a 
basement and two full stories surmounted by a steeply pitched roof. The 
long (1 76 feet) northern facade is punctuated in the center by a square tower 
100 feet tall, while the stacks extend behind. The new library was quite 
unlike Searles Science Building, and no other structure designed by 
Vaughan is comparable. Distinct aspects of this design are familiar Vaughan 
forms: he frequently used the square tower, often, as here, with crenel- 
lations, in churches and chapels, although invariably with pointed-arched 
openings. The steep pitch of the roof was an idea Vaughan borrowed from 
English country churches and used to great effect, often with a square 
tower, in his picturesque, asymmetrical American churches. But for edu- 
cation buildings he eschewed the picturesque, using instead the symmetry 
seen on this campus, in a Methuen, Massachusetts, high school, and in the 
Upper School building at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire. 

Vaughan described the style in 1901 in a letter to George Little. 

The architecture of the new Library is 1 7th century Gothic. It was the last age 
of Gothic in England and was followed by the Renaissance. Many of the Col- 
lege buildings of Oxford and Cambridge are in this composite style, as you might 
call it. 4 

And composite it is. Note the classically balustraded oriels that project so 
handsomely on the east and west beside the tower. The Gothic gables above 
the windows are crowned by baroque curved pediments. The finials of the 
gables keep wry company with the bosses and crockets that adorn the tower 
along with one lone gargoyle. The mixture, however, is comfortable. It was 
Vaughan's special talent to balance mass and surface successfully. The spe- 
cific stylistic heritage of the building and its details is of less importance 
than the success of the ensemble. 

Vaughan must have known that a visual relationship with McKim's 



5 2 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Walker Art Building would only enhance his building. He chose a similar 
brick (called Harvard brick in the documents), Indiana limestone, and local 
granite, the same components as those used to build the art building. 

In Searles, Vaughan had been forced to give up stone trim around the 
windows. Here, on Hubbard, he used it around windows, in corner quoins, 
on the tower's pier buttresses, and in details, creating a richly-colored 
surface and contrasting the texture of brick with the carved stone surfaces 
and the slate roof. 

That Vaughan was successful in dealing with simple volumes is amply 
demonstrated in the stack area. In President Hyde's words: 

The architect has given a pleasing unity to the five long rows of necessarily narrow 
windows, by capping them with two large symmetrical gables; while in the rear he 
has converted the several platforms required for a prosaic part of library adminis- 
tration, the dusting of books, into balconies with beautiful wrought iron work. 5 

While the exterior of the stack area unfolds with stylistic consistency from 
the quadrangle facades, the interior of the stacks is more structurally reveal- 
ing than the rest of the interior. The glass floors (a late nineteenth-century 
invention to enhance light), the metal shelving, and the six large piers 
testify to the mechanics of the building. In the reading and office areas, 
structure (including several impressive barrel vaults) was carefully con- 
cealed as a matter of course. 

As the building phase drew to a close, Hubbard, Vaughan, and Little 
were still engrossed in details of woodwork, furniture, lighting, and exte- 
rior finishing. A motto was chosen for the principal entrance — "Here seek 
converse with the wise of all the ages" — and cut into a handsome ribbon 
fold. The observant visitor will find a shield bearing the Bowdoin sun, 
another with the coat of arms, and Mr. and Mrs. Hubbard's monograms on 
two more. The sundials on the east and west ends were also part of the 
original scheme. 

The College took sixty years to outgrow a library designed to serve the 
needs of an indefinite future. When the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library 
was completed in 1965, the former main library room of Hubbard Hall, to 
the left of the large lower hall, was turned into the Peary-MacMillan Arctic 
Museum. Thomas Hubbard would have been pleased, for he was president 
of the Peary Arctic Club from 1908 until his death in 191 5. 



THE QUADRANGLE 



53 




Hyde Hall 

1917 ALLEN AND COLLENS 



The Reports of the President written by William DeWitt Hyde from 1885 to 
191 7 clearly reveal his priorities for the College. For several years it had 
been clear that campus housing resources were inadequate and in some 
cases antiquated, but Hyde's principal concern was for buildings that 
served the curriculum. 

The building of Hyde Hall did not come at a happy or optimistic time. 
The months of planning and fund raising coincided exactly with the 
months of submarine attacks on American ships. The United States 
declared war on Germany in April 191 7. President Hyde was not well, and 
his young dean, Kenneth C. M. Sills, was sharing his work. In May of that 
year, President Hyde withdrew from his duties and on June 29 he died. 



54 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




As soon as Sills was named acting president, work 
began on Hyde Hall, although enrollment had already 
dropped dramatically because of the war in Europe. The 
decision to name the new hall after President Hyde had 
been made with his agreement in January of 191 7. The 
March 5, 191 8, issue of the Orient includes a photograph 
of the just-completed building with the remark that "all 
the bedrooms have heat and light," an interesting com- 
mentary on the older halls. 

Besides having heat, light, and abundant plumbing, 
the new dormitory signaled an interesting development 
of taste in the College. Although it might have been natu- 
ral to ask the architects, Allen and Collens, to design the 
new building in the image of the older dormitories, a 
campus style was by no means established. There is no 
hint that such a concept existed at the time, and the evi- 
dence of Searles, Walker, and Hubbard, indeed of the 
Chapel, suggests that variety was not unwelcome. 
The first notion of organizing the campus by architec- 
tural style as well as by placement of buildings came from William J. Curtis, 
class of 1875, a Trustee of the College and a lawyer. In his reply from New 
York to Franklin C. Payson, class of 1876, a lawyer in Portland, Curtis 
agrees the new dormitory is "extremely necessary." In this letter, dated 
January 30, 19 17, he continues: 

There are two subjects in this connection which I would like very much to urge, 
and if possible to secure your co-operation. One is the architect. It seems to me that 
in all matters of this kind we should have a college architect, one who ranks among 
the best in the profession, such as McKim, Mead & White, or Cram, or Goodhue 
or Ferguson, men of that type who are doing the very best artistic work in the 
country, in order that the standards, type, and artistic value of the buildings shall be 
uniform and of the highest grade. Second, it seems to me we should now plan not 
only for the location of this building but for any possible additions in order that the 
buildings may not be scattered, producing the loose and irregular effect presented 
by the campuses of a number of colleges, Harvard seems to me to be the worst and 
Yale second. 1 

Curtis was reflecting, quite accurately, the progressive architectural 
thinking enunciated by Montgomery Schuyler in his Architectural Record 
articles. Between 1909 and 19 12 Schuyler had written a series on American 
campus planning. For Schuyler, architectural style was less important than 
the thoughtful disposition of buildings according to a plan. 2 

In the absence of specific documents, it seems that the site and the "con- 
formity with that [exterior treatment] of the present dormitory buildings," 



A Hyde Hall doorway. 
Photograph by Richard 
Cheek. 



THE QUADRANGLE 5 5 



as President Hyde said in his 1916-1917 Report, were careful choices. Allen 
and Collens, a Boston architectural firm, specialized in college buildings. 
They were busy at Williams College, among others, at the time. They 
worked well in the Richardsonian Romanesque, Gothic Revival, and Colo- 
nial Revival styles. 

The contract and specifications, which name Felix Arnold Burton '07 as 
associate architect, refer to the granite lintels and the brick color of the 
older buildings. Allen and Collens were faithful to the earlier models in 
spirit and in economy of means, but they did give the building an individual 
stamp. The basement level is all brick, unlike the granite bases of the earlier 
buildings. A soldier course of molded brick terminates this area. Originally 
there were two doors on the quadrangle side, as well as one on each end. 
The entrances to Hyde, unlike those to the older three dormitories, are set 
at ground level. Perhaps the decision for a brick basement was dictated by 
the placement of these entranceways. In any event, a totally different 
rhythm was established by the doors and the fenestration above. Rather like 
ragtime syncopation, the sizes and dispositions of openings in the wall 
enliven an otherwise sober composition. This introduction of Queen Anne 
style was also evident in the original one-over-one glazing of the windows. 
The six-over-six is a very recent (198 1) change. 

Curtis and Payson raised money for the building of Hyde Hall as alumni, 
not as trustees. Curtis, in the name of the class of 1875, gave $20,000. He 
was generous here as he was in numerous ways, often in the name of his 
class. He gave to the town of Brunswick, his birthplace, the Curtis Memo- 
rial Library, which he named for his father. His wife and daughter were 
instrumental in founding the Society of Bowdoin Women in the early 
1920s. 



56 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




to 



President Sills as the 
Memorial Flagpole is 
removed from the 
Chapel, 1930 




THE QUADRANGLE 57 



The Memorial Flagpole 

1930 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

Immediately after the Armistice in 191 8, a committee from the Alumni 
Council met to make recommendations for a suitable war memorial. Sug- 
gestions ranged from a window in Memorial Hall to a swimming pool. The 
final decision was to erect a monument. Early drawings favored a sort of 
rostrum to be placed on the quadrangle midway between Appleton Hall 
and the Museum of Art. 

In 1 9 19 the College named as the architect McKim, Mead and White, 
who were already responsible for the Walker Art Building and the Class of 
1875 Gate and who would soon design the Curtis Pool and the Moulton 
Union. The architect's model for the rostrum was displayed in the Museum 
of Art in 1923, when fund raising began in earnest. 

By April 1930 the memorial had taken the shape of a flagpole, to be 
erected where lines from Hubbard Hall and the Walker Art Building would 
intersect in the quadrangle. One Saturday night the yet-to-be-erected 
flagpole was moved into the Chapel by a group of students. The pole more 
than filled the length of the Chapel, and college employees had great diffi- 
culty removing it. A debate ensued, and — unusual for that time — the 
students prevailed. The site was changed to the present location between 
the Walker Art Building and Gibson Hall. Dedication was held the follow- 
ing November on Alumni Day. 

The square base of the flagpole incorporates a granite seat on all four 
sides and an area for incised inscriptions with the names picked out in gold 
of the twenty-nine Bowdoin men who died in World War I. A circular 
bronze base supports the pole, which is surmounted by a gilded eagle. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Harvey Dow Gibson 
Hall of Music 

1954 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

An early and prophetic mention of Harvey Dow Gibson '02 occurred in a 
letter from William J. Curtis to Franklin C. Payson in which plans for Hyde 
Hall were laid: "Gibson, to whom you refer, is a young alumnus who is 
making great strides in the business world. He has just been elected presi- 
dent of Liberty Bank, one of the best in the city and a Morgan institution, 
which means a good deal." 1 

Gibson was a member of the New York fund-raising committee for Hyde 
Hall, which was built in 1 9 1 7. By 1 924 he was a Trustee and three years later 
chairman of the Finance Committee, a responsibility he retained until his 
death in 1950. A memorial fund was established that year, seeded by the 
Manufacturers Trust Company, of which Gibson had been president. The 
fund grew to $250,000 through the generosity of friends and of Mrs. Gib- 



THE QUADRANGLE 59 



son and their daughter, Mrs. Whitney Choate. By fall 1952 plans were 
underway, and a dedication in 1954 was announced for the Harvey Dow 
Gibson Hall of Music. James Stacy Coles had succeeded Kenneth 
C. M. Sills as Bowdoin's president in 1952; Gibson Hall bespeaks the gra- 
cious end of the Sills era. 

Gibson Hall was calculated to harmonize with the Walker Art Building. 
The brick and the Indiana limestone used for lintels, sills, and stringcourse 
repeat colors and textures from both the art building and Hubbard Hall. 
Gibson, like Walker, has a high basement and is set on a terrace. Originally 
the terrace formed a gentle slope, with a simple, broad flight of stairs from 
the walkway level and another flight to the main entrance. The sharp verti- 
cal cut of the undressed stone retaining wall was a modification made in 
1968 at the time of the installation of the Class of 1922 fountain. 

It is not the similarities but the differences between the earlier McKim, 
Mead and White work and this structure of sixty years later that are 
instructive. By this time, of course, the three original partners had died: 
Stanford White was murdered in 1906, McKim died in 1909, and Mead 
retired in 191 9. The firm continued under the same name until 1961, the 
year of the death of James Kellum Smith, the last partner chosen by the 
original three. 

Where the art building is formal and monumental, the music building is 
informal and of a domestic scale. The art building is pulled upwards visu- 
ally by the columns, arch, and dome; the music building is extended hori- 
zontally by its wings, so the second story over the central block is visually 
subordinated. As if to emphasize the earth-bound nature of this structure, 
the principal windows are lengthened by deep panels. 

Gibson Hall encourages the careful reading of details. There is a tripar- 
tite rhythm established on the lower floor by the arch-enclosed Palladian 
windows on the wings and the arched entranceway. The crowning wooden 
parapet is pierced by three openwork panels. The tripartite window over 
the entranceway is a motif taken from the "ends" of the earliest 
dormitories. 

Especially with the planting that was done when the retaining wall was 
devised, this building takes on the aspect of late eighteenth-century garden 
architecture. It is not the imposing main house, but an airy, delicate 
outbuilding where wooden trim joins brick and limestone. This effect is 
enhanced by the carved walnut paneling of the reception room inside, 
opposite the entrance, designed in 1724 by Jean Lassurance for the music 
salon in the Hotel de Sens in Paris. 

It is to the credit of the latter-day McKim, Mead and White partners that 
this design does not try to copy or to compete with the Walker Art Build- 
ing. Gibson Hall creates its own aesthetic. 



6o THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE 6 I 



Coleman Hall 

1958 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 



Four years after the construction of Gibson Hall, the final neo-Georgian 
commission at Bowdoin was completed. Coleman Hall was given by Jane 
Coleman Pickard, who, with her husband Frederick William Pickard, class 
of 1 894 and a member of the Governing Boards from 1923 until his death in 
1952, had already given Pickard Field, Pickard Field House, Pickard Thea- 
ter, and a chair in chemistry named for Mr. Pickard's father. 1 

Mrs. Pickard was acting in the spirit of Mrs. Gibson in giving substan- 
tially to Bowdoin after her husband's death. The need for a dormitory was 
well known, as it had been for each preceding one, but dormitories seem 
never to be built until the need is dramatic. Whereas the earliest dormitories 
were built for around $10,000, $450,000 was required to build, furnish, and 
landscape Coleman. 

Although McKim, Mead and White again used red brick with white trim 
and a granite foundation, this building is less monumental and more 
graceful than, for instance, its neighbor Hyde Hall. 

A number of factors account for Coleman's graceful proportions: the 
entranceways are placed on the long side (in this case the quadrangle side), 
punctuating the long rows of windows. The fenestration above the doors, 
which illuminates the stairways, extends two stories in an unbroken 
expanse of small panes. This area is further defined by a recessed panel. Just 
below the flat roof is a short brick parapet. Below this a strongly profiled 
cornice and a granite stringcourse mark off the attic story from the rest of 
the floors. On both Gibson and Coleman this device serves to further the 
illusion of delicacy so that the two buildings are comparable in their 
informal scale. This delicacy did not impress an editorial writer from a 
Portland newspaper, who commented on the published plans for Coleman 
Hall on September 21, 1957: 

We are repelled by the excessive modernism of the planned Air Force Academy 
campus [Eero Saarinen architect], but are certain that somewhere between Bow- 
doin's squat cubes and the jazzy spires of Colorado Springs there is a middle 
ground on which the design of future Bowdoin could rest. 2 

Mrs. Pickard had placed in each entryway the inscription "that the boys 
who live in this house will have a happy memory of it all their lives is the 
wish of their friend, Jane Coleman Pickard." 



62 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE 63 



Nathaniel Hawthorne- 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 
Library 

1965 STEINMAN, CAIN AND WHITE 

1983 addition by Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott 

When Hubbard Hall was built as a library in 1903, the College felt sure it 
would be adequate for the foreseeable future. Although finding shelf space 
for new books took resourcefulness and was ever a subject for complaint, it 
was not until after World War II that the situation again became acute. In 
1953 shelving for 25,000 volumes was built in the Chapel basement. The 
need for an addition was first articulated in 1958 in a simple ground plan 
drawing that transformed the original T-shaped building into an H, 
thought by some to be in tribute to General Hubbard. 

The faculty library committee and the boards' library committee were 
both of long standing. The faculty committee was particularly active and 
made proposals from time to time, but progress by neither body was swift. 
Then, in January 1 960, the Boards authorized an ad hoc library committee 
consisting of one Trustee, two Overseers, two faculty members, and the 
librarian. By July the committee was in consultation with an architect; in 
August, a library consultant was involved; and by March 1961, the decision 
was made to build a new, separate structure. 

In the period before the Civil War, funds for the Chapel were raised 
piecemeal over a ten-year period. Often construction had to be halted. 
Hubbard Hall, at the turn of the century, was built expeditiously by the 
generosity of a single donor. But by the early 1960s the day of the single- 
donor building was over. Funds were raised by capital campaigns and from 
foundation and government grants. 

President Sills's Sesquicentennial Fund, which raised over $3.75 million 
between 1947 and 1952, was Bowdoin's first comprehensive capital fund- 
raising drive. In his 1956— 195 7 Report, President Coles laid the groundwork 
for the modern perennial development effort, and in 1 962 he began a special 
capital campaign with a goal often million dollars. It was with money from 
this campaign and with the aid of a federal grant under the Higher Edu- 
cation Facilities Act that the new library was built. In fact, groundbreaking 
was delayed until the United States Senate voted on this measure. Almost 
four hundred thousand of the two and one-half million dollar cost of the 
new library came from this new source. The swiftness of change in higher 



64 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



education and the growing complexity of its economics are made apparent 
by a remark of President Sills in his Report of 1948 1949: 

I happen to be strongly opposed to federal aid for higher institutions of learning. I 
am not so anxious about the possibility of federal control, but I do believe that the 
strength of education in this country has come from the variety of institutions of 
higher learning and from the competition that has thereby resulted. 

In the ten years between the end of the Sesquicentennial Fund and the 
beginning of Coles's Capital Campaign, government funding for education 
had grown enormously, and significant tax incentives to private giving, yet 
another form of federal subsidy, were about to be enacted. During Presi- 
dent Coles's Capital Campaign a new source of funding, the matching 
grant, was introduced. The Ford Foundation matched new donations 1:3. 

Three considerations determined the site of the new library. One was 
proximity to Hubbard Hall, the second was nearness to the proposed Sen- 
ior Center (now Coles Tower), and the third was the possible obscurity of 
building in the shadow of Hubbard Hall. 

The ad hoc committee turned to the college architect, McKim, Mead and 
White, for some drawings. McKim, Mead and White underwent changes in 
the partnership between August i960 and March 1961, and the firm became 
Steinman, Corrigill, Cain and White. By the time of the completion of the 
library, the firm was Steinman, Cain and White, and by 1971 it was Walker 
O. Cain and Associates. They designed the Casco Bank and Trust Company 
Building in Portland in 1970 and the Maine State Museum in Augusta in 
1971. 

Architect John Faron suggested that the firm should work with a library 
consultant. Keyes Metcalf, librarian emeritus of Harvard University, who 
had done some consulting on the modernization of Hubbard in 1953, 
returned to Bowdoin in i960 to urge the erection of a separate structure 
that would be, in the words of the ad hoc committee's report, "functional 
and attractive, but not monumental." Metcalf also argued against undue 
"architectural space," while studying carefully the library's needs for study 
carrels, shelf space, and processing areas. 1 

Economy, modernist aesthetics, and an aesthetic of accommodation 
shaped this building. The architects were skilled at "fitting in" between 
Gibson and Hubbard Halls. Whereas Hubbard dominates its own space 
and the whole quadrangle, Hawthorne-Longfellow can only with difficulty 
be seen as a discrete volume. From the quadrangle the long side, seven bays 
across, forms the focus of a vista. The three arched ground floor windows 
are reflective and inviting at the same time. 

The program worked out by committee, consultant, and architect called 
for eighty thousand square feet, with sixty thousand to be used for library 
needs immediately. The remaining twenty thousand, divided among three 



THE QUADRANGLE 65 



floors and the basement, were for the college administration to use until the 
space was needed for the library. Hence the building has two principal 
entrances on the short sides, the one for the library facing east, the one for 
the college administration facing west. 

The red brick with limestone trim, begun with the Walker Art Building 
and carried out in Hubbard and Gibson Halls, is repeated here. The forms, 
however, are strikingly different. Instead of walls punctuated by openings, 
as in the older buildings, the library gives the impression of being a glass 
box to which are affixed, as punctuation, thin brick panels and ribbons of 
stone. Where Hubbard Hall depends on a variety of intersecting masses to 
lend it visual interest, its successor depends on a planar and linear balancing 
of horizontals and verticals. The three arched bay projections on the north 
and south sides also read as planes rather than as volumes. The notion of 
lightness is enhanced by the generously glazed entranceways and is rhyth- 
mically repeated in the vertical window strips. The new library is neither a 
monumental building nor a competitive one. In these respects it has ful- 
filled its planners' intentions. 

Without an individual donor to lend a name to the new library, the 
Committee to Memorialize Buildings chose Nathaniel Hawthorne-Henry 
Wadsworth Longfellow in honor of the two men of letters of the class of 
1825. In addition, they named various sections of the interior for graduat- 
ing classes, benefactors, faculty members, and other Bowdoin notables. 

The interior is visually straightforward and physically comfortable. 
Richard B. Harwell, the librarian who saw the building to completion, 
described the interior in the Library Journal for December 1965. 

The chief architectural features of the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library are two 
reading bays set out to the north and south of the building midway its length; two 
wells extending from the main floor to the ceiling of the second floor at the 
circulation area and the card catalog; an informal reading area at the east end of the 
second floor; and an elaborate special collections suite at the east end of the third 
floor. 2 

The idea that architectural features are flourishes rather than fundamentals 
is repeated with regularity in the negotiations for most of Bowdoin's build- 
ings. This attitude stems from both real and fancied economy; it also 
reflects a strong current in higher education that first surfaced in the 1870s 
and then was strengthened after World War II by International Style aesthe- 
tics. A philosophical mistrust of collegiate Gothic by academics in the 
earlier period reflected the strong emergence of science curricula, while the 
architects themselves later promoted mistrust of buildings that masked 
structure. 

In reality, there are fundamental architectural features in this building, 
not the least of which is the frankly curtain nature of the brick panels. 



66 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Ultimately, the pervasive architectural feature is the library's expansion, in 
which Hawthorne-Longfellow was joined to the Hubbard stacks under- 
ground. The decision to build underground rather than to erect a joining 
building seemed fairly well agreed upon by the time an architect was 
chosen, although an April 19, 1982, Boivdoin Orient article still mentions the 
possibility of extending the Hubbard stacks westward toward Hawthorne- 
Longfellow. 

Of the half-dozen architects interviewed, the Boston firm of Shepley 
Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott, college architect to Harvard University 
from 1900 through the 1930s, was retained. The addition they designed, 
which cost almost as much as Hawthorne-Longfellow had in the first place, 
was six times as costly as Hubbard Hall. 

The work consisted of three parts: 1) conversion of some of the Hubbard 
Hall stacks, 2) creation of a reading room, and 3) extension of the library 
underground. The stacks in Hubbard Hall were done first. Some shelf 
space on five levels was converted into an elevator, stairs, and faculty stud- 
ies. The sixth, the topmost level, was transformed into a reading and study 
area named for Albert Abrahamson '26, George Lincoln Skolfield, Jr., 
Professor of Economics Emeritus, who contributed generously to the 
library expansion project. 

During the academic year 198 2-1 98 3 library users entered through the 
administration's door, for the eastern excavation began at the other 
entrance. An extension of the existing basement of Hawthorne-Longfellow 
to the east has provided shelving for government documents, many more 
reading and study areas, and a reserve book desk. On the surface the archi- 
tect has punctuated the paved plaza with a pyramidal skylight. A larger 
skylight in the shape of a gabled rectangle abuts the exterior, rear staircase 
of Hubbard Hall. The underground path from one building to another is 
thus expressed on the surface, and daylight is allowed into the basement. 
The end of the larger skylight is stepped to echo the shapes of the Hubbard 
Hall steps and granite trim. 



THE QUADRANGLE 67 




■ -.V.-js£. - 



Class of 1922 Fountain 

1968 

In the fall of 1968, three years after the opening of Hawthorne-Longfellow 
Library, the courtyard between the library and Hubbard and Gibson Halls 
was created. The Class of 1922 Fountain, the cobbled area, the retaining 
wall in front of Gibson Hall, and the new plantings were contributed by 
Irene Stones Pickard, widow of John Coleman Pickard, class of 1922, in the 
name of her husband's class, The fountain and courtyard designs were by 
Andre R. Warren, then assistant superintendent of grounds and buildings, 
and the project was carried out by college employees. 



68 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE QUADRANGLE 69 



The Visual Arts Center 

1975 EDWARD LARRABEE BARNES 

"Originally I was expected to hook the new building onto the McKim, 
Mead and White structure. I insisted that it had to be one more separate 
building and not a wing, to respect the open-close, open-close perimeter of 
the Quadrangle." 1 Edward Larrabee Barnes's decision as well as his 
rationale are typical of the architect of the 1970s. Such architects had a 
studious respect for the past that was expressed in a curious blend of aca- 
demic and artistic styles. Many of them were splendid lecturers and daz- 
zling theoreticians. The country was in a historical mood — the Bicenten- 
nial was celebrated the year the Visual Arts Center was dedicated. 

But Bowdoin needed no reminder of her architectural heritage. Presi- 
dent Roger Howell wrote in his Report of 1 968-1 969: "Not only must a 
building placed in close proximity to the Walker Art Building be architec- 
turally of superior construction, but it must also be flexible enough in 
interior design to meet changing needs and methods of instruction." 

Even before the construction of Hawthorne-Longfellow library in 1965, 
McKim, Mead and White had submitted drawings of proposed additions to 
the Walker Art Building. The 1 894 building did not have spaces for instruc- 
tion in either studio art or the history of art. Yet these disciplines had grown 
at Bowdoin, as had the collections and the consequent development of 
museum programs as distinct from, but complementary to, academic pro- 
grams. During the twenty years of deliberation and planning and building, 
the staff grew from two to eight. But until the fall of 1975 all academic and 
museum programs were run from the lower floor of the art museum. Parts 
of the art collection were stored in quite unconventional places around the 
campus, and art instruction took place on the top floor of Adams Hall and 
in other temporary locations. 

Thus, although the need had been acknowledged (as in the earliest days, 
the boards still voted to erect structures when the money shall be forthcoming) , it 
was not until the admission of women as undergraduates in 1970 and the 
launching of the 175 th Anniversary Campaign Program that planning for 
the new building began in earnest. After five years of work, a clear enough 
idea of needs had been formulated. A model and plan of a proposed solu- 
tion to visual art needs was produced by Walker O. Cain and Associates (the 
new name of McKim, Mead and White) at the request of the College. The 
firm proposed a new gallery wing added at the rear of the Walker Art 
Building, a separate building to the north, and underground connections. 

Shortly thereafter a special Committee to Select an Architect for the Art 



7° 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Building was formed. The committee 
chose eighteen architecture firms from 
which to request proposals. 

In April of 1972 the committee chose 
to meet with eight of the original list. In 
June, having chosen Barnes as architect, 
the committee was formally discharged, 
and a building committee was consti- 
tuted to oversee construction. The fall 
issue of the Boivdoin Alumnus, which 
announced the inauguration of the 
175th Anniversary Campaign Program, 
included a special supplement, a handsome color brochure with drawings 
of the proposed art instruction building. 

In March 1 974, two years after the architect had been chosen, the excava- 
tion was begun. That same fall there was a much-publicized delay of struc- 
tural steel, and a year later, in the fall of 1 97 5 , there was another controver- 
sial delay. In October of 1975 the building was open for use, and that same 
month the 175th Anniversary Campaign Program made its goal of $14. 5 
million. The formal opening ceremony was in April 1976, at which time the 
name was settled. The Walker Art Building, which had been closed for a 
year, reopened at the same time. 

Two considerations guided the process of choosing the architect for the 
Visual Arts Center. The first was the existence of McKim's Walker Art 
Building, considered a treasure even though appreciation for the Beaux- 
Arts tradition was then at its lowest point. The second was the building's 
use: the study and practice of fine art. These factors put more than a little 
pressure on the choice of architect. 

Edward Larrabee Barnes was trained at Harvard University, where he 
studied with Marcel Breuer and Walter Gropius. After World War II 
Barnes opened his own practice in New York City. During this early period 
he also acted as design critic and lecturer at the Pratt Institute and Yale 
University. In 1 962 he designed the Haystack Mountain School in Deer Isle; 
from 1965 to 1974 he created both a master plan and several buildings for 
the State University of New York at Potsdam; and in 1973 he designed the 
Crown Center in Kansas City. At the time of his Bowdoin commission, he 
had just completed the new museum for the Walker Art Center in 
Minneapolis. 

Barnes's problem in designing the new building was to provide space for 
history of art and studio classes, a library, slide storage, picture study, 
exhibitions, and offices above ground as well as to create underground 
exhibition, auditorium, studio, storage, and office spaces; and to remake the 



THE QUADRANGLE 7 I 



entire lower floor of the Walker Art Building. 

Barnes did not have to design a museum, but he did find himself in 
competition with McKim, Mead and White next door, and in avoiding a 
direct confrontation, put himself in competition with the Class of 1875 
Gateway and Richard Upjohn's Chapel. These two influences on the site 
challenged him to work out rather complex solutions. 

The size and shape of the Visual Arts Center are echoes of the neigh- 
boring museum. Its brick walls are defined by narrow, horizontal channels 
as those of the older building are articulated by moldings. A broad and 
shadowy entrance area on the quadrangle side and a projection on the roof 
are also attributes the two buildings have in common. But whereas the 
museum rises gracefully, elevated first by a terrace and then by a high 
basement, the Visual Arts Center rises severely from the ground, anchored 
by the unrelieved corner cubes. 

The museum building, in good nineteenth-century fashion, has only one 
principal aspect — the entrance facade. The twentieth-century architect 
does not hesitate to provide two different but equally compelling facades. 
Barnes has made the building itself a gateway. The obvious method for 
achieving this is the central portal, which allows pedestrians to walk 
through the center. A more subtle method is the very large studio window, 
placed directly above and of the same proportions as the portal itself. This 
creates a monumental vertical accent, one that he has used in other 
buildings. 

The street facade offers no preparation for the quadrangle facade, where 
the central half is hollowed out beneath the third floor. The angled walls 
focus the pedestrian into the opening while exposing a gallery for student 
work. 

What might seem like a severe brick box is a complex building. Its sharp, 
clean, and sometimes unexpected angles and measured surfaces announce 
an architecture of the plane. It is not sculptural, and in many ways it appears 
more fragile than the Walker Art Building. The Visual Arts Center relies on 
visual tensions in much the same way as non-representational painting and 
sculpture do. The shape of the hollowed quadrangle facade and the studio 
window are cases in point. 

This controversial building is quite typical of Barnes's canon. Its visual 
and intellectual demands challenge even the dedicated student of 
architecture. 



Detail from a map of the 
town of Brunswick, 
September 1846 




£ & $ * ^ , 



■ v ** % % , 



\ 



THE SECOND WALK 



The Back Campus and Mall 

ALTHOUGH very few buildings at Bowdoin College are not within 
JT\. sight of the quadrangle, those of the second walk were built outside 
the quadrangle, behind the Chapel and the row of dormitories, facing, for 
the most part, toward the west. The development of this part of the college 
acreage began in 1885 with the first gymnasium (now the heating plant). 
The Observatory (built in 1891 and moved to Pickard Field after 1927) was 
followed by another gymnasium in 191 2 and the infirmary in 191 6, all done 
during the time of President Hyde. 

During the thirty-two years (188 5-1 9 17) that William DeWitt Hyde 
guided the College, the campus took its definitive form from the addition of 
key buildings that still delight and inform the eye. President Hyde was 
privileged to take an active part in the affairs of an era when the American 
economy was buoyant and higher education was stabilized and beginning 
to mature. It was the crucial time for colleges and universities to sort 
themselves out, declare their intentions, and develop either as undergradu- 
ate liberal arts institutions or as universities. 

Bowdoin changed its entrance and graduation requirements in 19 10, the 
year Kenneth Charles Morton Sills became the College's first dean. The 
issue was Latin. (The Greek requirement had been compromised five years 
earlier). The faculty, the president, and the new dean, a classicist, asked the 
Governing Boards to approve the candidacy for a Bachelor of Science 
degree. Latin was required neither for entrance nor for earning the degree. 
The Bachelor of Arts degree remained untouched. Bowdoin was not, of 
course, the only private institution granting two undergraduate degrees: 
Yale and Harvard had led the way a half-century earlier. The new degree 
signified a realistic reaction to public high school curricula and a recogni- 
tion of the importance of science and practical affairs for graduates. 

The Bachelor of Science degree was not a hint that Bowdoin planned to 
become a university. The College was to remain a college; the same choice 
was made at Williams, Amherst, and Dartmouth. The only outward sug- 
gestion that Bowdoin might develop graduate schools was the presence of 
the Medical School of Maine, opened at the College in 1820. There was 
also, during Chamberlain's presidency, a move to add a law school; and a 
few Bachelor of Science degrees were granted between 1875 and 1883. 

By World War I, however, the medical school was falling behind in 
equipment and teaching methods, and to President Sills fell the unhappy lot 
of presiding over its dissolution. When the accreditation committee of the 
American Medical Association advised them that the school would shortly 
lose its class A rating, Sills and the boards set about to raise money to 



74 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



ensure a sound financial base for the medical school. The plan was 
announced at the school's centennial celebration; a year later, in 1921, the 
effort had failed and the school was dissolved. To President Sills goes the 
credit for handling a difficult situation with such tact and evenhandedness 
that proponents and opponents alike appreciated his efforts. 

The rhythm of the College had begun to change during the time of 
President Hyde. From the staccato of the first hundred years, Hyde's thirty- 
two years made the transition to adagio. The quadrangle was enclosed, save 
for Gibson, and the back campus was well on its way when Sills began an 
even longer tenure, thirty-four years, which gave the College sixty-six years 
of relatively uninterrupted development and consolidation. 

Sills was the son of the dean of St. Luke's Cathedral in Portland, a 
classicist, and an Episcopalian. He was also a Democrat. He upheld the 
central importance of Latin and Greek, and he believed in God; he ran for 
the United States Senate and served on commissions for Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt. 

After taking his degree in 1901 from Bowdoin, Sills studied at Harvard 
and Columbia before returning to his alma mater, first as instructor, then as 
dean from 1906 to 191 7, when he was named acting president during 
Hyde's last illness. In May of 191 8 he became president. 

Sills presided during remarkable events: World War I, the stock market 
crash, the Depression, World War II, and the changes of the postwar 
period. His style of leadership in no way reflected the manic-depressive 
state of the world. He felt that the proper role of a college was learning and 
teaching, not making headlines. In the late 1940s he objected strongly to 
the establishment of a public relations office on the grounds that "no news 
is good news" and that another administrative office would take money 
from teaching. 1 The administration in 1920 included eleven people, some of 
whom were also faculty members. By 1950 there were twenty-four, includ- 
ing an alumni secretary and a director of admissions. Despite Sills's objec- 
tions, it had become impossible to operate even a medium-sized college 
without a non-teaching staff. 

During the 1920s the management of alumni affairs became more soph- 
isticated, with the 1924 institution of Alumni Day (now Homecoming) in 
the fall and with the appearance in 1927 of the Bowdoin Alumnus (now the 
Bowdoin Magazine). 1 In the early days of Homecoming, the alumni had 
luncheon in Memorial Hall, while their wives were entertained at the First 
Parish Church. The Society of Bowdoin Women was organized in 1922 by 
Mrs. William J. Curtis and her daughter, Mrs. Henry H. Pierce. Kate Doug- 
las Wiggin Riggs h 1904 was national president. This hardworking group, 
still active today in support of various college activities, raised substantial 
sums and provided comfort and entertainment for visiting women. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 75 



Alumni Day coincided with the Bowdoin-Bates football game, a yearly 
event since 1889. Intercollegiate baseball has an even longer history, but it 
was football that decisively changed college athletics. The spectators as well 
as the players became major forces in college affairs. The presence of 
women spectators turned football games into social events, a fact that pro- 
vided added emphasis to alumni gatherings but gave pause to college presi- 
dents. In a letter to Harvey Dow Gibson '02, President Sills said: "I 
suppose that intercollegiate athletics were invented to keep every college 
president in a state of humility. They certainly furnish more trouble than all 
the rest of the College put together." 3 

A good part of the trouble was the patchwork of coaches and physical 
training instructors. The Athletic Council, composed of alumni and under- 
graduates, made decisions and paid some salaries as late as 1935. The Col- 
lege paid some other salaries, and some were paid jointly by the council and 
the College. During almost three-quarters of the nineteenth century the 
struggle had been to establish physical training and sports programs. The 
new problem was how to control the appeal of athletics and how to 
maintain a healthy balance between exercising the body and exercising the 
mind. 

Also extracurricular, but no less central to the life of the College, were 
the fraternities. The note of ambivalence that rises from time to time in 
official records echoes the ambiguity of the situation. Like athletics, frater- 
nities were to some extent independent of the College. The chapter houses 
were and still are owned by the fraternity corporations. The fraternities 
provided an organized extracurricular and social life. They also provided 
housing for a college where many students still rented rooms in Brunswick. 
On the other hand, the fraternities sometimes commanded stronger alumni 
loyalty than did the College. The whole college community was increas- 
ingly preoccupied in the postwar years with debate over the fraternities' 
exclusion of minority group members. These issues were seldom men- 
tioned before World War II, although the Thorndike Club, a social organi- 
zation for men who had not been pledged to fraternities, was formed in 

1937- 

At Bowdoin, the classical tradition in education was not threatened by 
the educational upheavals experienced elsewhere. While large universities 
like Harvard and Yale were seeking to create smaller internal units, Bow- 
doin in the 1920s and 1930s maintained a student population of under 600. 
And where large institutions sought to correct the buckshot effect of the 
elective system by general education schemes, Bowdoin inaugurated com- 
prehensive examinations in the major field. The freshman requirement of a 
course in Latin, Greek, or mathematics was abolished only by President 
Coles in 195 6-195 7. Sills, however, made one interesting compromise with 



-]G THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



an otherwise purist curriculum. He continued the traditional president's 
course for undergraduates but did not choose to teach Latin. Instead, in 
1919-1920 he inaugurated a comparative literature course which met just 
before lunch for thirty-three years. Perhaps the only time Sills allowed 
himself to think in vocational terms was during the Depression, when his 
Report of the President for 1933— 1934 stresses a curriculum that would en- 
courage resourcefulness and the flexibility to change jobs to "meet 
changing conditions." 

President Sills made sure that programs in the arts were strengthened 
and expanded during the Depression. Robert Peter Tristram Coffin '15, 
Pierce Professor of English; George H. Quinby '23, professor of English 
and director of theater; Philip C. Beam, Henry Johnson Professor of Art 
and Archaeology and director of the Museum of Art; and Frederic E. T. 
Tillotson h '46, professor of music, were appointed to the faculty. And if 
there were no startling changes in the basic curriculum at Bowdoin, there 
was a well-organized effort to bring contemporary thought and outstand- 
ing practitioners to the campus through the semi-annual Institutes which 
began in 1923 and continued into the 1950s. 

Attendance at college chapel for a prescribed number of daily and 
Sunday services was still required of undergraduates as late as 1966, 
although there were no courses in Biblical literature or in religion until 
after 1934, nor was there a college chaplain. President Sills, an active layman 
in the Episcopal church, conducted Wednesday morning chapel, where he 
often, according to his biographer, Herbert Ross Brown h '68, professor of 
English and Edward Little Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, spoke of the 
history and government of the College. Far from neglecting religion, Sills 
listed the chapel speakers and tallied the student body by religious prefer- 
ence every year in his report, a practice not abandoned until 1961. 

While Sills was president, the quadrangle remained as it had been since 
1 91 7, and the back campus and Pickard Field were developed. In 1938 an 
Overseer from the class of 1886, Walter V. Wentworth h '46, gave $1,500 to 
prepare a comprehensive map of the campus. The college architect, 
McKim, Mead and White, not only indicated buildings, paths, and plant- 
ings, but also outlined ideal future development. The notion of a college 
architect and the choice of the firm that had already designed the Walker 
Art Building, the Class of 1875 Gateway, the Curtis Pool, the Moulton 
Union, and the Memorial Flagpole bespeaks both conservatism and an 
interest in harmonious vistas. 

In 1948 the most dramatic campus change took place. Harpswell Street 
was rerouted through the Pines to connect with Federal Street at the Bath 
Road. The Delta, an eight-acre triangle of land containing Adams Hall and 
a baseball diamond, was thus united with the rest of the campus. Bath Road 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 77 



now formed the northern boundary. In negotiating with the town of Bruns- 
wick, President Sills had offered to make the new road at the College's 
expense. At first the stretch of Harpswell Road from College Street to 
Federal Street through the Pines was called Delta Drive; later it became Sills 
Drive. 

The impact of World War II on men's colleges cannot be overestimated, 
either in its immediate effect or in its implications for the future. Overnight 
the male college student population became the armed services population. 
Bowdoin's regular enrollment dropped in 1943 to a little under 150. The 
armed forces, to be sure, used campuses for various training programs: 
Army meteorology and Navy radar were two such programs at Bowdoin. 
In 1942, the academic calendar was drastically changed for the first time in 
order to allow students to earn their degrees in three instead of four years. 
The resulting trimester system continued through 1948 and was resumed 
briefly during the Korean War. Comprehensive examinations were sus- 
pended and only one foreign language was required, but freshmen still had 
to choose between Greek, Latin, and mathematics until 1957. 

In reading presidents' reports it is often necessary to use some imagina- 
tion to grasp the underlying concerns. One issue that was quite clear, 
however, was President Sills's disappointment at postponing the Bowdoin 
sesquicentennial celebration until after the war. The year 1944 was auspi- 
cious neither for a capital campaign nor for elaborate festivities. Bowdoin's 
first capital campaign began in 1 947 and ended in 1952, the sesquicentennial 
of the College's opening. 

The Sesquicentennial Fund was partly earmarked for buildings, long 
needed and further delayed by the war. Two were finished before Sills 
retired: Sills Hall/Smith Auditorium and Parker Cleaveland Hall. Gibson 
Hall, Dayton Arena, and Pickard Theater were started by Sills, who died in 
1954, and completed by James Stacy Coles, Bowdoin's ninth president, 
whose election was announced in President Sills's final Report of the Presi- 
dent in 1952. 

Coles had studied chemistry at Mansfield State College and Columbia 
University and had received his Ph.D. from Columbia in 1941. He was 
associate professor of chemistry and acting dean at Brown University 
before becoming president of Bowdoin. Like Sills, Coles was thirty-nine 
when inaugurated as president. But unlike his eight predecessors at Bow- 
doin, Coles was a scientist. If a mellow paternalism was the tone of Presi- 
dent Sills's reports, the tone of President Coles's reports was often briskly 
businesslike. 

One of his first projects was a self study, paid for by the Fund for the 
Advancement of Education. The Report of the Committee on Self Study, 
entitled The Conservative Tradition in Education at Bowdoin College, was pub- 



78 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



lished in 1956. The value of a periodic self study is inestimable — Sills had 
followed the same course in the 1920s — but it seemed a particularly wise 
move for Coles so soon after he was elected, for the study allowed the 
faculty, alumni, and students to describe their educational assumptions and 
goals. The document described a college confident of the Tightness of its 
past but still undecided on the course of its future. The extraordinary 
increase in the numbers of college-bound students after World War II 
became an important topic for study and debate, especially since the impact 
and the duration of these changes were not yet clear. 

The central issue facing all colleges and universities was size: size of the 
student body, size of the faculty, and size of the campus in numbers of 
buildings. Once Bowdoin decided to increase the number of undergradu- 
ates to 925, certain other steps had to follow. What Coles did for the next 
several years, it appears from his reports, was to ease the College into 
regarding itself as a more sophisticated and complex institution than it had 
been in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1959 President Coles wrote 
in his report: 

The President's task of administering a college has become one of tremendous 
complexity. The comments in the press and magazines on the resignations of 
several of the ablest college presidents at an early age attest to this. Full and 
competent administration is a necessary part of the modern college and it should be 
as efficient as possible. 

His remark would never have been made ten years earlier. In the spirit of 
what were to become drastic changes, the word "men" in this report once 
and for all replaced "boys." 

At the end of Coles's tenth year, in place of the Report of the President, the 
College issued A Decade of Progress, written by Professor Melvin T. Cope- 
land '06, Trustee Emeritus. It recapitulated the state of the College in the 
measured tone of an earlier era but contained plans for significant change. 
During the decade, the quadrangle had gained the Harvey Dow Gibson 
Hall of Music and Coleman Hall; Pickard Theater had been created in 
Memorial Hall; and in the back campus Dayton Arena had been added to 
the athletic complex of Sargent Gymnasium, Hyde Athletic Building, and 
Curtis Pool. Copeland's summary seems to say that the house is in order, 
but it is time for change. 

A new capital campaign, seen as necessary to support the expansion of 
the College, began in 1962. When it ended in 1964, over ten million dollars 
had been raised. What followed was astounding to the Bowdoin commu- 
nity and of national note as well. In 1964 and 1965 the Senior Center (now 
Coles Tower, Wentworth Hall, and Chamberlain Hall), Hawthorne-Long- 
fellow Library, and Morrell Gymnasium were built. Not since the period 
1 894-1903, when the Walker Art Building, Searles Science Building, and 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



79 



Hubbard Hall were finished, had architecture so changed the campus. Coles 
Tower was then the tallest building north of Boston, and these new build- 
ings were all modern. The revivalism of the final McKim, Mead and White 
buildings — Gibson and Coleman — had been superseded by a progressive 
"new" style. 

These three buildings embodied profound changes in curriculum, in life, 
and in the way students were regarded. The Senior Center program was an 
ambitious undertaking based on two premises: the maturity of college 
students and the validity of their self-determination. Beyond solving a 
housing problem, beyond transferring some loyalty from the fraternities 
back to the College, the new program recognized the individuality of 
students. It was discovered, for instance, that sophomores and juniors 
could run the fraternities perfectly well — fraternities which had as mem- 
bers 95 percent of the student population. 

The Senior Center program supplemented the still rather chaste curricu- 
lum with new areas of study, notions of the interdisciplinary, and topics 
which could be explored in a semester in a seminar environment. The only 
prerequisite was that the seminars — each senior chose one each semester — 
be outside the student's major field. By 1979, when the Senior Center 
ceased to function according to its original guidelines, the regular curricu- 
lum of the College had absorbed its lessons and had been transformed in its 
requirements, course offerings, grading system, and independent study 
possibilities. 

During the 1960s at Bowdoin there was a persistent move toward 
diversity and a concomitant move away from tradition. Thus, for example, 
1 96 5-1 966 finally saw the establishment of an undergraduate major in reli- 
gion and saw Commencement moved out of the First Parish Church. In this 
same year were the beginnings of Project 65, an undergraduate effort to 
recruit minority students, and of Upward Bound, a summer study program 
for high school students from rural Maine. 

The administration was reorganized, as were the committees of the Gov- 
erning Boards, and the president strongly urged the adoption of systems 
analysis and program budgeting. In his 1 966-1 967 Report of the President, 
Coles wrote: 

In generations past, education in the Liberal Arts has been considered the edu- 
cation of gentlemen . . . essentially a means of acquiring culture. It was assumed 
that any practical value . . . would be peripheral in nature. To meet the contempo- 
rary needs of society and the needs of each individual student, practically all forma- 
lized education today has become vocational in its end objective, as well as in the 
motivation with which the student approaches it. No college student seeks merely 
to become a liberally educated gentleman. [His] end goals and motivation are 
career oriented. 



80 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



It is symptomatic of the rapidity of change that he felt confident expressing 
a view of the liberal arts college so at odds with the traditional 
understanding. 

This was President Coles's final report. In the academic year 1 967-1 968 
he took a sabbatic leave, and Athern P. Daggett, class of 1925 and William 
Nelson Cromwell Professor of Constitutional and International Law and 
Government, was made acting president. In Daggett's report two issues are 
emphasized: minority recruitment and coeducation. When James Stacy 
Coles resigned late in 1967, Bowdoin once more looked within to find a 
president. 

Roger Howell, Jr., class of 195 8, was fortunate to inherit a College more 
receptive to change than the Bowdoin of 195 2 had been, since change and 
upheaval were to characterize the years of his presidency. Indeed, college 
presidents in the next decade were required to face intellectual, political, 
and social turmoil and successfully balance revolution and tradition. Presi- 
dent Howell had returned to the College as assistant professor of history 
after receiving his advanced degrees from St. John's College, Oxford, 
where he was a Rhodes Scholar. In 1968 he had become a full professor and 
acting dean of the College during the sabbatic leave of Dean A. LeRoy 
Greason. 

Although Bowdoin presidents of the nineteenth century kept a sharp eye 
out for undergraduate unrest, they would have had no reason to anticipate a 
strike nor the negotiations necessary among administration, faculty, and 
students to settle it. The strike at Bowdoin in May 1970 occurred in an 
atmosphere charged by the Vietnam War, similar strikes across the country, 
the deaths at Kent State, and the extension of the right to vote to eighteen- 
year-old men and women. Traditionally, graduation from college and 
attaining one's majority had been roughly synonymous. In one stroke the 
balance shifted so that most students entered college as, nominally, adults. 
Although this legislation is a handy symbol for the revolution of the 
student, it had come from a complex of political and sociological changes. 

What occurred at Bowdoin during the next nine years had much more to 
do with individual human beings than with building programs. Roger 
Howell presided during a time of new role definitions for women, college 
students, and faculty members. Bowdoin was profoundly changed by 
admission of women in 1970 and the decision in 1973 to enlarge the student 
body — an increase of 400 between 1968 and 1977. A greater adjustment, 
however, was to the self-created "new" student who was politically active, 
wanted to study independently, was involved in social programs, took 
leaves of absence, preferred to live a less-than-collegiate life off campus, and 
wanted an active role in major college decisions. In 1970 students were 
invited to participate on Governing Boards committees, distribution 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



requirements for the degree were abandoned, College Entrance Examina- 
tion Board scores became optional for admission, the Afro- American Cen- 
ter was established, and a counseling office was begun. The faculty began to 
include women and was invited to send members to sit on boards commit- 
tees. The familial nature of Sills's era was transformed by numbers of 
students, by growing specialization within traditional departments, and by 
the postwar mobility of academic scholars. 

President Howell began each Report of the President with "The Financial 
Situation." He had to deal with high inflation and the 1973 Arab oil 
embargo, a forceful reminder of the vulnerability of the United States. The 
effect on the College was profound, as it became apparent that the energy 
crisis was a permanent situation. It is not surprising that there was so little 
building during those years. The Pine Street and Harpswell Street 
apartments were finished in 1973; though they were not designed to be 
energy-efficient, they answered a new sort of housing need in their plan and 
in their locations. The Visual Arts Center, with its enormous windows, had 
been years in the planning but was also completed before the development 
of post-embargo architectural solutions. 

When Roger Howell resigned as president to return to full-time 
teaching, research, and writing, the College had just been reaccredited by 
the New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, which 
"commended [it] . . . for offering a traditional education excellently." 4 
Computers had assumed new prominence; security, as elsewhere, was a 
concern. 

Roger Howell served as president for nine years. Willard Finley Ente- 
man, his successor, was inaugurated in 1978. He came to Bowdoin from the 
position of provost and professor of philosophy at Union College. A gradu- 
ate of Williams, he had received an M.B.A. from Harvard and a Ph.D. in 
philosophy from Boston University. During his two and one-half years he 
dealt with the problem of finances, which had been exacerbated by the rise 
in the cost of energy, from $100 to $800 per student per year in a decade. 
During Enteman's tenure the Senior Center was renamed Coles Tower in 
honor of its instigator and in recognition that the original senior program 
had finished a long and useful life. 

At Enteman's behest, Plan for the Year 2000, a comprehensive plan for 
the campus, was prepared by Saratoga Associates, the first such plan to be 
made since 1958. Campus planning had two distinct phases in the United 
States. The first phase, early in the twentieth century, tried to impose order 
on the welter of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but it was a visual 
order and was most often enhanced by landscape design, especially ivy. 
Depending upon the age and development of the institution, the classical 
ideal could be realized in a new set of buildings as at Columbia and Sweet 



82 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Briar. Although Bowdoin did not appoint McKim, Mead and White the 
college architect until 191 9, in fact all but one new building from 191 2 
through 1958 had in common red brick and classical details, whether 
designed by McKim, Mead and White or by Allen and Collens. The 
exception is Dayton Arena, built in 1956. Even Pickard Field House (1937) 
is, in its own way, Classical Revival. To this first phase belong the two 
campus plans by McKim, Mead and White, one of 1949— 1950 and another 
of 1958. 

The earlier plan was prepared for the spate of post- World War II build- 
ing planned under President Sills and included Sills Hall/Smith Audito- 
rium and Parker Cleaveland Hall. 

The McKim, Mead and White plan of 195 8 indicates proposed changes: 
an addition to the stacks in Hubbard Hall; an addition to the rear and sides 
of the Walker Art Building; an addition to Smith Auditorium and to the 
Sargent Gymnasium; and an added wing on the south of the Moulton 
Union. By 1965 President Coles and the Capital Campaign had built a new 
library, added a new gymnasium connected to Sargent Gymnasium, 
enlarged the Moulton Union, and provided seminar rooms as well as a 
totally new living unit in the Senior Center. James Kellum Smith, a 
McKim, Mead and White partner, had remarked prophetically in 1949 that 
it is "unwise to prepare designs too far in advance. . . ." 5 And, indeed, the 
bold new Bowdoin buildings were not designed by McKim, Mead and 
White, although Hawthorne-Longfellow came from the successor firm, 
Steinman and Cain. 

The second sort of comprehensive campus planning followed World 
War II. During the 1 9 5 os and 1 960s campus planning consultants, societies, 
and periodicals appeared. By this time there was a need for new colleges as 
well as a need to enlarge existing institutions. Richard Dober included a 
drawing of Hugh Stubbins's proposed Senior Center at Bowdoin in his 
1963 Campus Planning as an example of vertical planning. The new college 
planning sought economy of materials and of land, and flexibility for pres- 
ent use and future additions. Bowdoin has by and large avoided additions. 
The Moulton Union and the Dudley Coe Health Center have been enlarged 
without noticeable visual impact. In order to preserve the classical exterior, 
the Museum of Art was renovated and linked to the Visual Arts Center 
underground. The recent library addition is also underground. 

Some lessons from the 1960s were applicable, and the Saratoga Associ- 
ates plan of 1 979 addresses the problem of the automobile as well as provid- 
ing for library, science, and gymnasium expansion. The plan has been useful 
although it has not always been followed exactly. 

The first Saratoga plan showed an above-ground building joining Haw- 
thorne-Longfellow to the Hubbard stacks, but the decision to retain the 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 




open area by building underground prevailed. The new athletic facility is 
located on Pickard Field rather than adjacent to Curtis Pool, preserving the 
open space in front of the Dudley Coe Health Center. 

In answer to the problems generated by automobiles, one suggestion 
from the Saratoga plan was followed. By the spring of 1982 the Campus 
Mall had been created, closing off the cross-campus access road, which had 
become a traffic and parking hazard. Now a series of low platforms and 
benches behind the Chapel, in front of Sargent and Curtis, restrains traffic 
and provides the first easy physical link between the quadrangle and the 
back campus. 

The inauguration of Arthur LeRoy Greason, Jr., as president in the fall 
of 198 1 followed a short period in which he served as acting president. Like 
President Sills, President Greason also had been dean of the College. A 
1945 graduate of Wesleyan University, Greason holds advanced degrees 
from Harvard, where he was a teaching fellow before joining the Bowdoin 
faculty in 1952 as an instructor in English. 

Under President Greason's leadership, a new capital campaign, the Cam- 
paign for Bowdoin, has been launched, and another period of building has 
begun. Whereas the introduction to the first walk ended on a note of 
finality, this preface to the second walk ends, happily, without conclusion. 
The campus will change in the next few years, although, if the past still 
informs the present, it will retain its fine proportions, maintain the rhythms 
of its structures, and continue to assert a powerful identity. 



Winthrop Hall, the 
Chapel, and the first 
Sargent Gymnasium in 
the late nineteenth century 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



Heating Plant 

formerly Sargent Gymnasium 

1885-1886 ROTCH AND TILDEN 

Of all the Bowdoin College buildings, this is the only one to have been 
altered substantially on the exterior. Built in the mid- 18 80s as the College's 
first gymnasium, it is now the central heating plant. 

It is difficult for a culture addicted to strenuous exercise and demanding 
sports to imagine a time when physical endeavors were considered ungen- 
tlemanly and antithetical to academic pursuits. All of America's earliest 
colleges passed from absolute prohibition of athletics to a system of Ger- 
man gymnastics in the 1 820s. Outdoor activities, especially gymnastics and 
gardening, were emphasized in the 1850s, but it was not until the 1870s and 
1 880s that gymnasium structures were built. Harvard's Hemenway 
Gymnasium, designed by Peabody and Stearns, was reputedly the largest 
until it was surpassed by Princeton's gymnasium in 1903. Physical edu- 
cation, physical culture, and hygiene entered the college curriculum, 
became requirements, and received credit toward the degree during the last 
three decades of the nineteenth century. 

Bowdoin had tried German gymnastics in the 1 820s under the tutelage of 
John Neal of Portland, a maverick writer, art patron, and Liberal. In the 
early 1860s, space in Commons (now part of the Department of Physical 
Plant) was found for gymnastics and physical training. The program was 
directed by William C. Dole until he left for Yale in 1870, whereupon 
Dudley Sargent was recruited from a visiting circus. 

In 1872 physical training became compulsory; in 1873 th e unfinished 
Memorial Hall began to serve as a gymnasium. In 1875 Sargent, who had 
just received a Bowdoin degree, left for Yale. Eventually he ran the pro- 
gram at Harvard and established the Sargent School of Physical Education 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

At Bowdoin, in the meantime, the program suffered from lack of funds. 
After the completion of Memorial Hall, space in Winthrop Hall was used 
for physical training under the direction of three short-term instructors. It 
was clear that a proper building was necessary, but it was only after five 
years of votes by the boards and largely unsuccessful fund raising that in 
1885 progress was discernible. 

The appointment of President Hyde in 1885 emboldened the College to 
push ahead. Additional incentive came from Dudley Sargent, now at Har- 
vard, who promised to furnish the gymnastic apparatus for the new build- 
ing. In November 1886 the structure was completed at a cost of 



86 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




The first Sargent Gymna- 
sium, ca. 1890, now the 
Heating Plant 



$11,786.08. The Orient's note that the building 
was lighted by electricity is important, for win- 
ter's early sunset had always hampered physical 
training at Bowdoin. 1 

By 1889, when the building was named for 
Sargent, the required program had been estab- 
lished by Frank N. Whittier, class of 1885, who 
was to serve Bowdoin for thirty-eight years as 
director of physical training and college physi- 
cian. Each student was examined and given an individual regimen. In addi- 
tion, each class did group and squad work for one-half hour four afternoons 
a week from November through April. The program included Indian clubs 
and fencing as well as boxing, wrestling, weights, and apparatus. This was a 
regular part of the curriculum, required for the degree, as was the freshman 
course in hygiene. 

The long-awaited building opened up a new area of the campus. The 
choice of a site was delegated (as had usually happened in the past) to the 
treasurer of the College, at this time Stephen Jewett Young, class of 1 8 5 9, 
who had taught modern languages at the College from 1862 to 1876. 
Although no documents have been found, it is unlikely that a site on the 
quadrangle was considered. In the hierarchy of college buildings, a gymna- 
sium does not occupy a position consonant with its importance to under- 
graduate life. The College did require that the site afford a clear view 
between Winthrop and Maine Halls. Thus, though the Sargent Gymna- 
sium stood alone behind the college row, it, like the row, faced west. 

The architects chosen for the College's eighth permanent building were 
Rotch and Tilden of Boston. Arthur Rotch and George Tilden were both 
trained at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (formerly the Lowell In- 
stitute) and in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and in the Atelier Vau- 
dremer. Their partnership of almost fifteen years produced a large number 
of substantial buildings and lasted until Rotch's early death in 1 894. Welles- 
ley College, Williams College, and the City of Cambridge have education 
structures designed by Rotch and Tilden, and there are many large, inge- 
niously designed summer cottages of theirs in Bar Harbor, Maine, and 
Lenox, Massachusetts. It is unfortunate that so many of their works on Mt. 
Desert Island were lost in the 1947 fire; at least photographic documenta- 
tion remains. 

Like many other architecture firms active in the last twenty years of the 
nineteenth century, Rotch and Tilden were accomplished in more than one 
style. Richardsonian Romanesque, Queen Anne, Shingle, and Colonial 
Revival details inform their work. But underlying their domestic structures 
are the prevailing picturesque ground plan and silhouette common to the 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



best dwellings of the era. Their institutional buildings — done in stone or 
brick — are appropriately more compact, broad, and earthbound. 

Although it is not easy to imagine the original appearance of Bowdoin's 
first gymnasium, there remain in the present heating plant almost enough 
clues to make a visual reconstruction. The broad arched upper window 
areas; the deeply cut, grouped lower windows; the strongly modeled belt 
course between lower and upper sections; the slit windows at the upper 
corners; and the molded brick cornice are remnants of the building's origi- 
nal aspect. Imagine a broad hipped roof with boldly projecting eaves sup- 
ported by brackets and enlivened by a broad, shallow dormer and a project- 
ing wide skylight at the ridgepole. 

The original main entrance was in the same place as the present door, 
which is barely distinguishable from the lower windows. It began in a flight 
of five exterior steps and was a square cut into the wall and elongated by a 
deep stone architrave or lintel block above which were eight slit windows 
like those at the corners. The stairs continued inside this shadowy hollow to 
reach the main floor. The brick arches surrounding the main floor windows 
were rounded, not straight-sided, and the strongly-profiled sash consisted 
of a group of three, the center topped by another small light. 

Only ten years, perhaps fewer, after this building was finished, two fac- 
tors made it obsolete — the need for a central heating plant, and the greatly 
increased enrollment. Both these pressures resulted from the gifts of the 
Mary Frances Searles Science Building and the Walker Art Building — to be 
followed shortly by Hubbard Hall. Although originally Searles and Walker 
had individual furnaces, the need for central heating and lighting was quite 
clear by 1900. That year the lower floor and an addition to the back of the 
Sargent Gymnasium were given over to the new heating plant. The great 
smokestack rises on the rear building. 

The rest of the building was used as a gymnasium until the present 
Sargent Gymnasium and Hyde Athletic Building went up in 191 2. The old 
building was remodeled into a student union in 191 5 and then converted to 
its present use in 1920, after a fire in the upper part necessitated changing 
the roof windows and entrance. Both redesigns were by Felix Arnold Bur- 
ton '07. Of the latter, Burton said his design was "along the lines of a 
modern power and lighting station." 2 

One of the problems faced by designers of gymnasiums is creating an 
interesting "container" for large, open interior spaces. Even what remains 
of the original Sargent Gymnasium proves Rotch and Tilden's ability to 
mitigate sheer bulk. The proportions of roof to principal floor to lower 
level, the window groupings, and the strong horizontal divisions articulate 
the exterior in a way both pleasing and prophetic of the work of the next 
generation of architects. 



88 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Sargent Gymnasium and 
General Thomas Worcester 
Hyde Athletic Building 

1913 ALLEN AND COLLENS 

In a disarmingly frank talk in June 191 3 at the dedication of the new 
gymnasium, the architect, Charles Collens, said: 

Now I am a great devotee of Gothic and wherever conditions are right, I know of 
nothing that is so pliant and well adapted to the various services and requirements 
of a college group as Collegiate Gothic . . . but with the traditions that Bowdoin 
has behind her, it would seem most fitting that her future development should 
follow along the simple Colonial lines that our New England forebears knew so 
well how to employ. As you look this new building over we hope that you will find 
something that resembles Colonial in spots although I cannot recall that our forefa- 
thers employed monitors to light their buildings, or were ever bothered with quite 
such an unwieldy problem. 1 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 89 



Collens drew together many educational strands in his remarks, not the 
least of which was the importance of historical clothing to the success of 
academic buildings. Colonial Revival was joining Collegiate Gothic as a 
favored style. Allen and Collens was only one of many firms that could 
design in a variety of historical styles. They were in the business of dressing 
function in stylish and evocative garb. 

The first Sargent Gymnasium was only ten years old when the doubled 
student body taxed its confines. President Hyde began a long and energetic 
campaign for a new facility, using his annual report as a prime public 
vehicle. 

In private correspondence with Trustee William L. Putnam in 1900, 
President Hyde pursued the need for a central heating plant and a new 
gymnasium: 

I have found that the gentleman to whom I referred as likely to give a gymnasium 
and heating station is not to be counted on at present, for either. His son, while a 
special student here, was so dissolute that we had to remove him from College, and 
while I had the pleasantest talk with his father about it, and he professed himself as 
heartily approving our action in the matter, yet, naturally what we did, did not 
particularly endear the institution to him . . . Hence the way is open for your friend 
to provide, say a gymnasium and heating station ... I wish your friend could 
appreciate how vital a matter this is to us, and how much more valuable such a Gift 
would be within the next two months, than it would be at any later time. 2 

Judge Putnam, in reply, felt that attracting the gift of a heating station was 
unlikely. Yet by late summer, contracts had been signed to convert the 
lower story of the first gymnasium into a central heating plant, while a new 
gymnasium was still a dozen years away. 

During the decade of planning, three schemes were drawn and pub- 
lished. As early as 1902 Rotch and Tilden prepared ground plans and an 
elevation for a new athletic facility, their preliminary work paid for by 
subscription from the alumni. These plans were published in Hyde's Report 
of the President in 1909, when the general financial situation had improved, 
but by the report of 1910-191 1 Rotch and Tilden's plans had been replaced 
by some drawn by Henry Bissell Alvord, the College's instructor in survey- 
ing, mechanical drawing, and geology, and some by Frank N. Whittier, 
director of physical training and college physician. In 19 12, the plans and 
elevation of Allen and Collens were published in the Report of the President, 
along with a lengthy list of contributions to what was called "the new 
Gymnasium and the General Thomas Worcester Hyde Athletic Building." 

Charles Collens, in his talk at the dedication, said: 

I am afraid my appearance before you as architect of this building is somewhat 
unwarranted under the circumstances. The fact is that the real architect is present in 



9° 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




the form of Dr. Whittier, who so carefully prepared the gen- 
eral scheme for the Gymnasium, as to leave small chance for 
any originality, or the opportunity of startling the College 
world with some new architectural freak. 3 

The compelling reasons for engaging Allen and Collens 
were their experience in collegiate architecture and the 
fact that their young associate for this commission was 
Felix Arnold Burton '07. The exterior details of the 
plans prepared earlier by Rotch and Tilden and now by 
Allen and Collens are not markedly different. Both 
firms ignored the style of the first Sargent Gymnasium 
and used instead classical details derived from Renais- 
sance and Georgian repertoires. Whittier's plan alone 
had echoed the lines of the older, Romanesque Revival 
structure. 

The catalyst in this building project was a major gift 
from Overseer John Sedgwick Hyde, president of the 
Bath Iron Works and eldest son of its founder, General 
Thomas Worcester Hyde, class of 186 1. General Hyde had become a briga- 
dier general when he was not yet thirty. Like Generals Hubbard and Cham- 
berlain, he had served courageously and with intelligence during the Civil 
War. Upon his return to his native Bath, he put together companies to 
manufacture steel ships and windlasses. 

Donors encouraged by the generosity of Hyde and of George Sullivan 
Bowdoin, a descendant of the Bowdoin family who had contributed 
$25,000, gave gifts of from five dollars to five thousand dollars. Nine thou- 
sand dollars came from undergraduates and medical students. It is not 
difficult to understand the importance of athletics to students, and already 
sports and gymnastics were extremely popular with alumni and friends. 

Allen and Collens did collegiate work in the Gothic Revival, the Roman- 
esque Revival, and the Colonial Revival styles at Brown, Middlebury, Wil- 
liams, Mount Holyoke, Harvard, and Vassar, as well as at the Cloisters and 
Riverside Church. In Brunswick the firm also designed the columned Colo- 
nial Revival Maine National Bank on Maine Street. In the new athletic 
facility at Bowdoin, the problem for the architects was to pull together two 
quite different and equally unwieldy spaces. The gymnasium is three stories 
at the west, or entrance, facade and two stories in the main body of the 
building; its dimensions are 80 by 140 feet. The Hyde Athletic Building 
(known as the Cage) is one enormous space 160 by 120 feet. 

Perhaps the best element of the design is in the monumental entrance 
pavilion. The central projecting bay comprises a frieze and a triangular 
pediment supported by brick pilasters and framing an arched window over 



The Bowdoin Sun, 
entrance to Sargent 
Gymnasium. Photograph 
by Richard Cheek. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



9 1 



a classically inspired door. Inscribed within the pediment is the Bowdoin 
sun. While the door is reminiscent of the Greek Revival, the window above 
is Federal. The effect is Imperial and bears comparison with McKim, Mead 
and White's Army War College of 1908 in Washington, D.C. 

The granite frieze, door frame, lintels, and sills of the projecting pavilion 
are smooth; the remaining stone moldings have been left rough. Behind the 
entrance pavilion is a three-story block, two bays at the corners. The next 
major division, which corresponds to the gymnasium inside, is articulated 
by seven bays, each of which consists of an upper arched window, a panel, 
and paired lower windows set into an arched opening. Thus a rhythm is 
established, and the brick wall plane is enlivened by the recessed portions. 
A hipped roof leads up to the ample monitor, which also supplies light to 
the gymnasium. 

What has become less obvious with the passage of time, the growth of 
trees and ivy, and the addition of buildings, is the awkward relationship 
between the two parts of this building. Collens chose to articulate the lateral 
facades: 



Thereby we broke the fundamental law of Architecture, which teaches that the 
exterior of every building must express the interior, and we are now fooling 
the onlooker by exhibiting a combination of gables and other details to produce 
the impression of smaller units within. 4 




The present Sargent 
Gymnasium , ca. 191} 



9 2 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



m?sAat 




THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 93 



The Polar Bear 

INSTALLED 1938 F. G. R. ROTH 

Shortly after their twentieth reunion, the Class of 191 2 began to plan for its 
twenty-fifth. Most of the energy and enthusiasm came from "the Portland 
Boys," as they styled themselves. Seward Marsh, class agent, summarized 
the developing plans for a class gift in a letter of June 1935 to William 
MacCormick, class secretary. 1 By this time the group had decided not to 
give money, but rather a tangible, visible gift to the College. The result of 
the class's deliberations and their fund raising was the Polar Bear by Freder- 
ick G. R. Roth. Unfortunately, a strike at the Westerly, Rhode Island, 
quarry and the sculptor's illness delayed the installation for more than a 
year after the reunion, until November 5, 1938, Alumni Weekend. 

The choice of the College's mascot, the polar bear, was especially impor- 
tant to this class because Admiral Robert E. Peary's final assault on the 
North Pole had occurred during their freshman year. The mascot was 
chosen in 191 3, at the forty-third annual banquet in New York of the 
Bowdoin College Alumni Association. Present were Admiral Donald B. 
MacMillan, class of 1 898, and Thomas H. Hubbard, class of 1 8 5 7, president 
of the Explorer's Club, who outlined plans for a forthcoming polar expedi- 
tion. Five years later, MacMillan gave the College the stuffed polar bear 
now in the lobby of the Morrell Gymnasium. 

Architect John Calvin Stevens, who worked with his son, John Howard 
Stevens, and his grandson, John Calvin Stevens II, planned the undertak- 
ing in consultation with the college architect, McKim, Mead, and White. 
The latter would have been familiar with Roth's work, as his studio was in 
Englewood, New Jersey. Roth already had done a life-sized group of polar 
bears for the city of Brussels, as well as the Columbia University Lion and 
the Princeton University Tiger. Roth engaged Frank Camolli of Westerly, 
Rhode Island, to block and carve the white granite. 

After the Polar Bear'?, unveiling, the fountain that stands between Sargent 
Gymnasium and the Curtis Pool was dedicated to Harry H. Cloudman, 
M.D. '01. The inscription reads in part: "First Athlete of His Time — Gift 
of His Associates 1 897-1904." Cloudman had been a three-letter man, 
having excelled in track, football, and baseball as an undergraduate. 

The Campus Mall, which extends from Sargent Gymnasium south to 
Curtis Pool and west to the Chapel, was completed in 1982 as designed by 
Saratoga Associates in their 1979 campus plan. The mall makes an ideal 
setting for the Polar Bear and the fountain, knits together the quadrangle 
and the back campus, solves a serious traffic problem, and provides a 
gathering space of fine proportions. 



94 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 95 



Dudley Coe Health Center 

formerly Dudley Coe Memorial Infirmary 
1917 ALLEN & COLLENS 

Bowdoin did not lag behind the most progressive institutions in the deci- 
sion to build an infirmary to provide systematic and centralized care to 
students. Not until just before the turn of the century was a need felt for 
sequestering and treating sick students. The need for an infirmary at Bow- 
doin was first formally voiced in President Hyde's Report for 191 2-1 91 3, 
and was repeated with more urgency in the following two years in the 
reports of Dean Sills. An open letter from students urging that an infirmary 
be built was reprinted in the Report of the President of 1915— 1916. 

In the same year the gift for building and endowing an infirmary was 
announced. The donor was Thomas Upham Coe, class of 1 8 5 7. After grad- 
uating from Bowdoin, Coe had received a degree from Jefferson Medical 
College and practiced medicine in Bangor from 1863 until 1880. That year 
he turned his attentions to "timberlands development, real estate, and 
financial affairs." He was a nephew of Thomas C. Upham, Bowdoin profes- 
sor of mental and moral philosophy from 1824 to 1867. 

Dr. Coe, like John Sedgwick Hyde only a few years earlier, wished to 
cover the total expense of the construction rather than share it with other 
donors. He asked that the building be named for his only son, Dudley, who 
had died when he was fourteen. 

The chairman of the building committee was, once again, Franklin 
C. Payson, lawyer and Trustee from Portland. He was joined by Overseer 
Ernest B. Young, class of 1892 and a Boston physician, and Dr. Frank 
N. Whittier, class of 1885. Dr. Whittier had been the first director of the 
first gymnasium. He had received his medical degree from Maine Medical 
School, where he also taught, in addition to supervising undergraduate 
physical training and health at Bowdoin. The committee selected the archi- 
tectural firm of Allen and Collens, with Felix Arnold Burton '07, associate. 
This firm had done the Sargent Gymnasium and Hyde Athletic Building 
complex, and they were also designing the newest dormitory, to be named 
Hyde Hall. Six years earlier, Allen and Collens had completed Thompson 
Infirmary at Williams College, where they had also designed a number of 
other buildings. 

While the Thompson Infirmary at Williams is a larger building, it is like 
Bowdoin's in that both are built on sites removed from the center of cam- 
pus, and both are domestic in scale and exterior elevation. Aside from 
considerations of infection, an infirmary needed quiet, but it was also an 
ancillary service to the real occupation of learning and scholarship. Presi- 



96 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



dent Hyde had, in his Keport of the President of 191 3—1 914, referred to the 
needed building as a "cottage hospital." This view of the home as a place of 
retreat during illness persisted at colleges, if not at universities, for many 
years. 

If the exterior suggested a dwelling, the interior did not. The kitchen, 
laundry, and nurses' dining room were in the basement. Operating and 
consulting rooms, reception areas, wards, and a wide sleeping piazza were 
on the first floor. The second floor was designed to be divided into two 
separate wards for infectious diseases like diphtheria and scarlet fever. Not 
only was there a separate exterior entrance to the second floor, to the right 
of the principal door, but there were also two staircases to the third-floor 
nurses' suite. 

The architects described the exterior as "severely Colonial," 1 but like 
most Colonial Revival designs it drew inspiration from many sources. The 
three-story elevation is typical of Federal period dwellings. The crowning 
cornice and parapet and the central second-story tripartite window are also 
Federal period details. 

The entranceway has been changed significantly since 191 7. In place of 
the present double door, the center opening was originally a single six- 
panel door flanked to the left and right by sidelights and crowned by the 
present elliptical fan light. What are now windows in the entranceway 
projection were at one time also six-panel doors, narrower and recessed 
slightly from the central door and with access steps. Only the door that led 
directly to the second floor was operable. The doors and the shutters were a 
dark color, making the effect of the building as originally planned more 
felicitous. 

The sun porch was enclosed in 1936; a wing to the north and an endow- 
ment for maintenance were donated in 195 8 by Mrs. Sherman N. Shumway 
h 1962, whose husband had been a member of the class of 191 7. The rear 
wing was added in 1974. 

In the early days, the infirmary staff treated infectious diseases, did emer- 
gency appendectomies, and nursed students through prolonged convales- 
cence. From its opening in 191 7 until 1962, infirmary reports and statistics 
formed part of the Keport of the President, chronicling the advent of wide- 
spread immunizations, drugs to control infection, and the growth of sports 
medicine. (By whatever name, there was always what Daniel F. Hanley '39, 
college physician emeritus, diagnosed as "Bowdoinitis.") Today the build- 
ing is called the Dudley Coe Health Center and houses the Counseling 
Service as well as the medical staff. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



97 




Curtis Pool 



1927-1928 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 



During the years of planning and fund raising for the Sargent Gymnasium 
and Hyde Athletic Building, the College reluctantly decided to forego a 
swimming pool. After World War I, a swimming pool began to figure 
prominently in the yearly list of priorities in the Report of the President. 

There was ambivalence in the president's wish to build a swimming 
pool, for the administration of athletic programs was complicated, and the 
president had yet to organize to his own satisfaction this increasingly 
important part of student life. Some funds, for instance, were generated and 
controlled by the Athletic Council, an autonomous group composed of 
alumni and undergraduates. 

The building of a swimming pool introduced to Bowdoin an unusual 
and extraordinarily generous person, Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar Curtis. 
The founder of the Curtis Publishing Company in Philadelphia had been 
born in Portland and later spent his summers in Camden. Curtis had left 
school when he was sixteen. His first publishing venture the year before had 
been destroyed by Portland's great fire of 1866. 



9 8 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Curtis Pool 



In 191 3 Curtis was awarded an honorary Master 
of Arts degree. A letter to President Hyde 
explains why he was not there to receive it: 

To confess to you, I thought degrees were only con- 
ferred upon graduates. My ignorance has cost me the 
satisfaction of being present at a time such as never will, 
in all probability, happen to me again ... I am particu- 
larly proud to have it come from Bowdoin — the col- 
lege of my native state and located in my mother's 
native town. 1 

\The College did give him another honorary 
degree in 1927, and he served as a Trustee from 
1930 until his death in 1933. Although no one 
seems to know exactly why Cyrus Curtis was 
interested in Bowdoin, William John Curtis, class of 1875, Trustee and 
benefactor of the College for many years, also had a summer home in 
Camden and was a native of Brunswick. He was not a relative of Cyrus 
Curtis but may have been known to him. In any event, in 1 926, Cyrus Curtis 
telegraphed President Sills his intention to give Bowdoin a swimming pool 
and a new organ for the Chapel. The Kotzschmar organ in the Portland 
City Hall was also a gift from Curtis in memory of his father's friend, the 
Portland organist Hermann Kotzschmar. 

Curtis's benefactions to Bowdoin continued in the form of gifts to the 
faculty retirement fund and a substantial gift for faculty salaries. In the 
1940s his generosity was compared to that of Thomas Hubbard and of 
Charles Potter Kling, who had given a generous donation of European 
silver and drawings to the Museum of Art. Curtis gave to other educational 
institutions in Maine and Pennsylvania and to many worthwhile projects in 
Portland, Camden, and Philadelphia. 

The task of choosing an architect he left to the College. The building 
committee of two Trustees and two Overseers was chaired by Franklin C. 
Payson, class of 1 876, a lawyer in Portland. Meetings were held late in 1926. 
The decision to choose McKim, Mead and White was made in December. 
Construction began, as was customary before the advent of wintertime 
construction, in April 1927. 

A number of architects, among them John P. Thomas of Portland and 
Harry Coombs '01 of Lewiston, expressed interest in the project. In his 
reply to Coombs, Franklin Payson wrote: "several years ago the Boards 
voted unanimously to employ Messrs. McKim, Mead and White of New 
York as the College Architects." 2 

Documents reveal that in 19 19 the firm agreed to act as "consulting 
architect" to the College. 3 This was still the optimistic era of campus plan- 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 99 



ning that had begun as a self-conscious Beaux-Arts-inspired effort at the 
turn of the century and was to become a major though not faultless tool for 
dealing with the immense growth of colleges and universities in the years 
following World War II. At this still innocent moment in Bowdoin's his- 
tory, McKim, Mead and White replied: 

Inasmuch as it appears at the present time unlikely that such an appointment would 
make very serious demands upon our time, it will be entirely agreeable to us to 
waive any retainer and to charge for our time on a per diem basis. 4 

Although the college architect was content to review the plans of a local 
architect for the swimming pool, the committee voted to award the com- 
mission to them. The supervising partner was James Kellum Smith. 

Unlike the Sargent Gymnasium and Hyde Athletic Building, the Curtis 
Pool structure is not pretentious. McKim, Mead and White designed a 
graceful rather than monumental entranceway. In the projecting pavilion 
the door is flanked by white Doric columns supporting an entablature; 
above is a semicircular fanlight. The scale of the other openings is as 
pseudo-domestic as the use of a fanlight. The two-story elevation and 
hipped roof also disguise the bulk and the intention of the building. The 
joining to its predecessor building, the Sargent Gymnasium, is handled 
with tact. The Curtis Pool building is gracious; its ample and well-propor- 
tioned fenestration conveys a lightness appropriate for swimming. 

In January 1928 the new pool was dedicated, and the first dip was taken 
by the governor of Maine, R. Owen Brewster '09. The Orient's editorial 
expressed thanks to Cyrus Curtis for the chapel organ and for the pool, with 
particular gratitude because he had no direct ties to the College. 5 



IOO THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL IOI 



Moulton Union 

1928 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

The new union building was in its first year when the donor, Augustus 
Freedom Moulton, class of 1873, wrote to Donovan D. Lancaster '27, new 
director of the Moulton Union: 

I have been since my Freshman days impressed with the need of a place for assem- 
blage of all the students to promote general acquaintance and association. 1 

Bowdoin was not alone in lacking spaces for undergraduate gatherings; 
the movement to build student unions began only in this century, with 
Harvard and Dartmouth among the first. At Bowdoin the dormitories 
provided no common rooms, and the eleven fraternity houses provided no 
spaces for common college use. It was, in addition, of concern to President 
Sills to provide for the 10 percent of college men who did not join fraterni- 
ties. Although Bowdoin was not nearly as large as Yale or Harvard, the 
Moulton Union was created at the same time those two universities were 
building their college and house systems for similar reasons. 

While the Moulton Union was not primarily a commons, it did have a 
large kitchen, a cafeteria, and a smaller dining room. For the first time in its 
history, Bowdoin had a place where visitors, faculty members, staff mem- 
bers, students, and Governing Boards members could meet and eat 
informally. Dining arrangements for students had been a matter of concern 
almost from the beginning. Certainly by 1828 it was clear that board in 
Brunswick was uneven in quality and price. When Commons was built on 
Bath Street in 1828, it was run by students. This arrangement continued 
more or less successfully until the Civil War. 

In his Report of 1 893 — 1 894, President Hyde explained the advantages of a 
common dining hall and added: 

in connection with the dining hall there should be a reading room where the daily 
papers and popular weeklies and magazines could be kept on file and suitably cared 
for . . . The proper time for such reading is in the odd minutes before and after 
meals; and the proper place is in immediate proximity to the dining hall . . . The 
site of the old commons affords an admirable location for such a hall. 

Twenty years later the Orient urged the College to transform the "old 
gym" into a union. 2 By 191 6 the first Sargent Gymnasium (now the 
Heating Plant) had become the Bowdoin Union, designed by Felix Arnold 
Burton '07, and converted with the help of a generous contribution from 
William J. Curtis in the name of the Class of 1875. The new union was 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Sun detail, 
Moulton Union. 

Photograph by 
Richard Cheek. 



an attractive and well-used space, although 
without dining facilities, but a fire in Febru- 
ary 1920 destroyed it. 

For the next seven years, a union figures 
prominently on President Sills's annual list 
of needs. Augustus F. Moulton, class of 
1873, h '28 made his gift of a new union 
building in 1928, the same year that the Tall- 
man Lectureship was given; the Bowdoin 
Prize was instituted by Mrs. William J. Cur- 
tis; Pickard Field was given by Frederick 
William Pickard, class of 1894; and the Class of 1903 Gateway to Whittier 
Field was presented. 

Space was wanted for undergraduate activities: the Orient, the YMCA, 
and the student government; there was need of places to read, listen to the 
radio, play pool, dance, have meetings, buy textbooks, listen to lectures and 
music, and eat. The building committee was chaired by Trustee Franklin C. 
Payson, class of 1876, h '11, who had seen to successful completion the 
building of Hyde Hall in 191 7 and the flowering of the back campus in 
Sargent Gymnasium and Thomas Hyde Athletic Building (19 12), Dudley 
Coe Memorial Infirmary (19 16), and Curtis Swimming Pool (1927). The 
project of designing the union was given to the college architect, McKim, 
Mead and White. Ground was broken before the Curtis Swimming Pool 
was finished. 

A description of the building, furnished by the architect, explains that it 
was: "inspired by the traditions of Colonial and early Republican work 
which to such an unusual extent constitute the architectural heritage of 
Bowdoin College." 3 

Since the completion of Hubbard Hall in 1903, all college buildings had 
subscribed to the Classical Revival canon, which became, in the first half of 
the twentieth century, an effective planning tool for college and university 
campuses. The position of the new building is as revealing as the style. The 
Moulton Union is on line with the athletic buildings to the north, and it 
faces squarely into the quadrangle between Appleton and Hyde Halls, a 
reminder that Bowdoin's campus is more formal than informal, more 
rational than romantic. 

Of all the the twentieth-century Classical Revival buildings at Bowdoin, 
this is the most successful. It is not unusual or innovative in style or mate- 
rial, but it is well and handsomely designed. The scale, appropriately, is 
domestic. The two-story building is set on a small rise on a moderately high 
basement. Although the facade is 1 2 1 feet across, the tripartite organization 
of masses mitigates the expanse and creates a sculptural ensemble. The 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 103 



forecourt provides a leisurely entrance, and its balustrade makes a visual 
link with the wings and echoes the roofline balustrade. 

This upper crowning, as much as any other feature, assures the domestic 
scale while suggesting a certain luxury of design. The arch motif of the 
entranceway is repeated in the central lower window of each wing; its 
central prominence is echoed in the white marble panel incised Moulton 
Union and the Bowdoin sun that crowns the balustrade above. The inspira- 
tion for the entranceway proper comes, not from "Colonial and early Re- 
publican" architecture, but from fifteenth-century Florentine sculpture, 
specifically from quasi-architectural tombs designed for niches in churches 
and cathedrals. The sculptural quality is quite effective here, worked out in 
painted wood and played off against red brick. 

At the time of the great building campaign under President Coles, which 
included the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, Coles Tower (then the Senior 
Center) and Morrell Gymnasium, it was decided to expand the Moulton 
Union. The faculty and boards committees met for two years to redefine the 
purpose of the union. They reaffirmed the original intent, which spe- 
cifically excluded use for academic classes, and added the functions of 
reception, information, and switchboard, so that today the Moulton Union 
offers hospitality to visitors. Although there were changes in the interior — 
the cafeteria moved downstairs into expanded quarters and the bookstore 
moved from what is now the cloakroom on the lower level to the rear 
addition on the first floor — the exterior is little changed, and the principal 
facade not at all. The McKim, Mead and White successor firm, Steinman 
and Cain, did the conversion in 1965 at the same time as they were working 
on the new library. 



104 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Moore Hall 

1941 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 



One of the most interesting and important events to chronicle during the past year 
is the erection of Moore Hall, the fifth dormitory of the College. This munificent 
gift of Hoyt Augustus Moore, of the class of 1895, is also a mark of confidence, 
built as it is in this year of doubt, but built not for the next decade but for the next 
century. 

President Sills, in whose May 1941 Report of the President this 
announcement was made, had also, as dean and acting president, 
supervised the erection of the last dormitory, Hyde Hall. In 1939 one-fifth 
of Bowdoin students were still obliged to live off-campus, while the num- 
ber in dormitories and in chapter houses was roughly equal. President Sills 
favored a dormitory for seniors that would be somewhat more comfortable, 
but his wish did not prevail. Harold L. Berry '01, who had replaced Frank- 
lin C. Payson as chairman of the Moulton Union building committee, was 
chairman for the new dormitory. McKim, Mead and White was the archi- 
tect, and James Kellum Smith the partner in charge. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 105 



The donor, Hoyt Augustus Moore, was a lawyer in New York at what 
was to become, in 1944, Cravath, Swaine, and Moore. He had been an 
Overseer and, from 1933, a Trustee of the College. Since 1937 he had been 
giving about $25 ,000 a year to Bowdoin. His numerous other benefactions 
included the Hoyt A. Moore Scholarship Fund. The new dormitory was 
named for his father, Augustus E. Moore. 

Although the original row — Winthrop, Maine, the Chapel, Appleton, 
and Hyde — was "full," there was still space across the quadrangle where 
the Visual Arts Center and Gibson Hall now stand. Perhaps by 1940 the 
College had come to see the rest of the quadrangle as academic, so the new 
building was placed behind it. The site, behind the Moulton Union at a 
distance that allows for easy access, is pleasant and reasonable. The 
handsome planting was included in the donor's gift. The original road onto 
the campus at this point, an extension of Coffin Street, had to be closed 
because the building intruded nine feet onto the road. Until at least 1965 the 
area in front of Moore Hall was grassy. 

The entrances to Moore Hall are not on the ends but on the facade facing 
the Moulton Union, indicating that Moore was planned as a companion to 
the union. The heavy cornices and pilasters of Moore support the tall stair 
landing windows which extend almost two stories. The arched form sur- 
rounded by a broad white margin repeats the original back entrance of the 
Moulton Union, part of which can still be seen inside the union on the 
landing to the second floor. Its top can be seen outside from the third and 
fourth floors of Moore Hall. 

The new dormitory is a mass of red brick organized, unlike its predeces- 
sors, by the white stringcourse that sets off the fourth, or attic, floor, 
crowned by a molding and white parapet. This formula was repeated in 
1958 by McKim, Mead and White when the firm designed Coleman Hall. 



Io6 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 107 



Sills Hall and 
Smith Auditorium 

1950 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

Attention to the campus and buildings had been delayed by World War II; 
because of the war, the Sesquicentennial of 1944 was a modest celebration. 
After the war the Sesquicentennial Fund was launched, and plans were 
made for new college facilities. The most dramatic outcome of this activity 
was the 1948 rerouting of Harpswell Street which led it through the Pines 
to Federal Street. The old Delta where Adams Hall and the baseball dia- 
mond stood was united with the rest of the campus. What is now Sills Drive 
was built by the College with the approval of the town of Brunswick. This 
bold move made it possible to develop a new area of the campus. The 
President's Gate was moved and placed to allow automobiles access to the 
new cross-campus road. 

No new classrooms had been built since 1894. In December 1948 the 
faculty committee for a new classroom building was appointed, as was the 
committee of the Governing Boards, chaired by Harold L. Berry '01. It was 
natural, by now, to turn to McKim, Mead and White for designs for the 
classroom building and the new chemistry building. 

Ground was broken for Sills Hall in October 1949 after a several- 
months' delay to rework the plans. The following September the new 
building was dedicated, and in May 195 1 James Kellum Smith, the architect 
for McKim, Mead and White, was given an honorary degree for his work 
on this and other buildings at Bowdoin and at other colleges. It was not 
until two years later that the building was named for Kenneth Charles 
Morton Sills, who had announced his retirement. 

During the early planning stages the Orient reported: "In view of the 
importance of visual education, and as a provision for larger classes, the 
committee also hopes that an annex may be added to the new building as 
soon as possible, containing a two hundred seat auditorium." 1 The final 
plans did include the Smith Auditorium. 

President Sills had once remarked that money tended to come from 
unexpected sources. Such was the case with the Francis, George, David, 
and Benjamin Smith Fund, left to Bowdoin from the estate of Dudley F. 
Wolfe in 1 941 . Mr. Wolfe, who died scaling K-2 in the Himalayas, was from 
Rockland and a graduate of Harvard. The fund honors his grandfather, 
Benjamin Smith, and his great-uncles, Francis, George, and David Smith. 
The sum of %\ 50,000 came to the College in 194 1 with the stipulation that it 



Io8 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



be used for a building or kept as a fund. The war intervened, so that an 
appropriate building was not built until 1950. 

With the new space acquired by rerouting Harpswell Street and the 
strong axis provided by the campus drive, the architect planned another, 
smaller, quadrangle for the new classroom building and the new chemistry 
building. It was decided to run Sills Hall parallel to Bath Street and place 
Smith Auditorium at a right angle, making an L-shaped building. One 
entrance faces Adams Hall, and the second is on the south flank. The Sills 
building block is two stories high, while the Smith block is one story. The 
transition is handled by the recessed, arched entranceway on the south side. 
Tall, round-arched windows recessed in the brick wall line the first stories 
of each block, providing visual continuity. 

The western entranceway is also arched, a stylistic feature often repeated 
in the work done for Bowdoin by McKim, Mead and White. A parapet, 
rather than the more sculptural balustrade of the Moulton Union, crowns 
the roofline. The tripartite window over the entranceway and the splayed 
lintels argue for some Federal influence, while the door itself is difficult to 
place. This facade owes something to the oldest dormitories but lacks two 
stories. 

The south flank is more interesting, with some generosity of proportion 
and courting of light and shade, its original effect now rather obscured by 
trees. 

It was reported in the Orient that the architect wanted to lower Adams 
Hall to make it conform with the new building. 2 This must have been the 
time when the trim on Adams was painted white and the grey-brown paint 
of the quoins and window surrounds was allowed to weather and almost 
disappear. 

Today Sills houses the Departments of Classics, Education, German, 
Romance Languages, and Russian. The Language Media Center, a speech 
center, and the film library are also here. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 




Parker Cleave land Hall 

1952 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

A new chemistry building was an important item on the Sesquicentennial 
Fund list, and the building committees were working on plans well before 
Sills Hall/Smith Auditorium was finished. A handsome brochure with pho- 
tographs of the construction of Sills/Smith concluded with a perspective 
drawing of the redevelopment of the old Delta, including the new chemis- 
try building. 1 

Two factors were responsible for the importance at Bowdoin of the 
sciences in general and chemistry in particular: the reputation and longev- 
ity of Parker Cleaveland, and the presence of the Medical School of Maine. 
Cleaveland was instructor, then professor at Bowdoin from 1805 to 1858. 
During that time he taught all the sciences in Massachusetts Hall. After 
Adams Hall was built, the science faculty doubled. When Cleaveland Hall 
was built, there were three faculty members just for chemistry. Today there 
are eight faculty members, four fellows, and a director of laboratories for 
chemistry alone. The history of science since the days of Parker Cleave- 
land's natural philosophy reveals the gradual classification of areas of 
knowledge and inquiry. It was not until 1882 that separate departments of 
chemistry, physics, and biology were organized at Bowdoin. By that time 
Adams Hall was no longer adequate, shared as it was with the medical 
school, and the old Commons on Bath Street had been appropriated for an 
analytical laboratory. Searles Science Building answered the need for space 
as well as up-to-date equipment in 1894. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



When ground was broken for the new chemistry building in March 195 1, 
there had been at least three sets of plans and three different proposals for 
the principal facade. For the faculty building committee and its chairman, 
Samuel E. Kamerling, Charles Weston Pickard Professor of Chemistry, the 
challenge was to provide the latest and safest laboratories as well as storage 
spaces, faculty offices, private laboratories, a library, classrooms, and a large 
lecture room. The three-member chemistry department was probably more 
concerned with the interior disposition of spaces than with the exterior 
style. The three different proposals for the exterior, however, suggest con- 
siderable discussion about the visual impact of the building on the Bow- 
doin campus. 

The first drawing, signed by James Kellum Smith of McKim, Mead and 
White, was included in a fund-raising brochure entitled Science for the Com- 
mon Good. 1 The design can best be described as Art Deco Georgian: the first 
and second story windows are organized in tall strips separated by decora- 
tive panels; the entranceway is very tall and surmounted by a tripartite 
window; and the roofline contains a white parapet decorated with horizon- 
tal panels. 

The second drawing, which was published in a later fund-raising bro- 
chure, shows an exterior closer to the final plan but with the central bay 
projecting rather than recessed and the entranceway arched instead of 
trabeated. 3 

The final solution, while in no way daring, is far more agreeable. The 
masses of the facade assert themselves, and the projecting portico becomes 
a sculptural element. This facade is reminiscent of the Moulton Union, but 
the placement of the building on a considerable rise and its broad expanse 
make it imposing and aloof. The architect seems to have been trying to 
maintain a domestic scale, though, for he hid the third full story by elabo- 
rate banking on the front. 

The stern face this building shows the world comes as close to symboliz- 
ing science as any architecture has done. College and university science 
buildings are usually indistinguishable from other academic structures. 
Even when the spare, clean, technological lines of modernism came to the 
college campus, they served science, humanities, and dormitories equally. 

Searles Science Building, which is equally neutral iconographically, was 
reworked on the interior by McKim, Mead and White at this time, too. The 
brick was painted in an effort to Georgianize Vaughan's handsome colle- 
giate Gothic. It should be noted that other campuses, in Maine and else- 
where, acquired buildings like Sills/Smith, Cleaveland, Moore and Cole- 
man, the Moulton Union, and Gibson. And other campuses, too, saw older 
buildings reworked to confer a spurious homogeneity. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL I I I 




Dayton Arena 

1956 BARR, GLEASON, AND BARR 

The only building dedication at Bowdoin that was deliberately planned for 
cold weather was held on November 10, 1956, in the new arena. With the 
indoor temperature at about 45 °F, the remarks were brief and were followed 
by a figure skating demonstration by members of the Skating Club of 
Boston. After the demonstration, the warmly-clad audience was invited to 
try the ice. 

An indoor skating arena had been on lists of college needs since 1928. 
Although an arena and an addition to the library were included in the 
Sesquicentennial Fund plans, neither project was undertaken as a result of 
the campaign. The students organized their own fund drive for a new arena, 
as they had done for Sargent Gymnasium, raising almost six thousand 
dollars. 

With the impetus of the student fund drive, the remainder of the money 
was raised by the alumni, but not easily, only a few years after the close of 
the Sesquicentennial Fund. In one clever appeal brochure the alumni are 
reminded that they have not been solicited for an athletic facilty for over 
forty years: "Construction has begun BUT ... to complete the new skat- 
ing rink, $100,000 must still come in!" 1 



112 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



In such a mood of fiscal constraint, it is not surprising to discover a 
structure of modest materials and conservative design. An early proposal 
made by the architecture firm of Alonzo Harriman and Associates of 
Auburn, done during the Sesquicentennial Fund, was more elaborate, par- 
ticularly in its extensive fenestration, including a clerestory. The final 
design was made by Barr, Gleason, and Barr, engineers and contractors of 
New York City. The Creamery Package Manufacturing Company of Bos- 
ton, a refrigeration firm, was their most important collaborator. There are 
also blueprint drawings in the Office of Physical Plant entitled "Proposed 
changes to Hockey Rink Design" by McKim, Mead and White, dated 
March 28, 1956. In the same drawer is a landscaping scheme for the 
entranceway prepared by Vincent Cerasi of McKim, Mead and White. 

Fundamentally the three schemes are similar, for they are all based on the 
Quonset hut. An invention of World War II based on the longhouse of the 
Iroquois, the Quonset hut design can span large interior spaces without 
intermediate supports. In its purest form it also eliminates the juncture of 
roof and walls, as does its popular successor, the A frame. The design 
problem was apparent in the earlier athletic facilities: how to enclose vast 
interior space while maintaining an exterior that has some sensible visual 
relationship to its surroundings. With Sargent Gymnasium and Curtis 
Pool, the classical revival facades on the narrow ends work well, leaving the 
mass behind to be articulated by fenestration and trees. 

The curves of the Quonset hut relate to few other kinds of buildings 
except airplane hangars. On the other hand, more fanciful solutions to the 
ice arena problem have had their share of detractors: the Ingalls rink in New 
Haven, designed by Eero Saarinen, was called "the whale." The rinks at 
Dartmouth and the University of Maine at Orono look like medieval 
encampments, with tent shapes of varying heights making up the roof. 

The Bowdoin arena is not a true Quonset hut because there are side 
walls. The principal material is concrete block painted red, the entrance 
facade is finished in stained clapboards, and the trim that surrounds the 
projecting area is wood painted white. 

A rededication of the arena took place on the ice on January 22, 1976, 
between the first and second periods of a game with Williams. The struc- 
ture was named in honor of Daniel Lacy Dayton, Jr. '49, an enthusiastic 
spectator who frequently made the trip from New York to Brunswick 
during hockey season. Dayton, who died in 1974, had been president of the 
New York Bowdoin Club. In addition to giving scoreboards, a public 
address system, and lighting, he had established the Daniel L. Dayton, Jr., 
Fund for the arena. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL I I 3 




Malcolm E. Morrell 
Gymnasium 

1965 HUGH STUBBINS AND ASSOCIATES 

Although there was no new building at Bowdoin between 1958, when 
Coleman Hall was finished, and the fall of 1963, when Coles Tower was 
begun, that five-year period was a time of intense planning for educational 
innovations and the facilities to house them. Bowdoin had made a commit- 
ment to expand the number of students to 925, and for this were needed 
a "necessary supplement for Hubbard Hall . . . additional dormitories 
. . . [and] enlargement of the gymnasium," according to President Coles in 
his 1 9 5 8— 1 9 5 9 Report of the President. While the gymnasium was a less glam- 
orous project than the Senior Center, it had the advantage of the same 
architect, Hugh Stubbins and Associates of New York. 

As early as 1945, Alonzo Harriman and Associates had prepared a ren- 
dering of a building for squash courts, to be placed to the north of Sargent/ 
Hyde and to repeat exactly the facade of the Curtis Pool. The hockey arena 
was destined for land in the Pines across the former route of Harpswell 



114 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Street. By 1964 a decision had been made to abandon the Georgian Revival 
and work in a more contemporary idiom. 

The greatest difference between Stubbins's design for the new facility 
and the older gymnasium structures was fenestration. Sargent, Hyde, and 
Curtis depended upon windows for interior light and air; the windows 
enlivened and articulated the exterior surfaces. New building technology 
and air-conditioning presented the architect with different options for 
lighting the Morrell Gymnasium, although there is a row of office windows 
in the granite basement level on the north and west facades. 

The entrance is on the north. The west flank, which is partially obscured 
by the heating plant, is set back from the facade of Sargent. On the south, 
the new gymnasium is subtly attached to the old, so that each building 
maintains its own exterior integrity. 

On the principal facade, the architect exercised considerable ingenuity to 
create a transition from the outdoors to the interior. A paved courtyard 
three steps down from sloping sides accommodates the crowds attending 
games, commencements, and other large gatherings. It was an important 
part of the architect's program to provide seating for 3,000, and in 1966, for 
the first time, awarding of degrees was held in the gymnasium rather than in 
the First Parish Church. 

The simple massing of three parts reinforces the sense of entrance in an 
asymmetric plan. The narrow block with doors and cantilevered canopy is 
set back from the planes of the two wings. The east wing, six bays wide, 
houses the basketball court, and the west wing, which holds offices, is three 
bays. To weight the narrower wing, the architect designed its blind arches 
just a fraction wider than those to the east. 

The materials are red brick laid in Flemish bond set upon a granite 
basement. An earlier perspective by Hugh Stubbins of the entrance facade 
shows the west block divided into thirds by vertical channels and the east 
block articulated by projecting vertical piers. At some point the decision 
was made to echo the arched openings of the older athletic buildings. The 
effect is benign and certainly not as assertive as the earlier scheme. 

The completion of the Senior Center, Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, 
and the Malcolm E. Morrell Gymnasium ended fifteen years of almost 
continuous building and renovation activity on the Bowdoin campus. Of 
this group of modern buildings, only Coles Tower is truly assertive, while 
the other two are accommodating to the sites and in no way intrude on 
earlier buildings. 

The New Gymnasium was dedicated in June 1965 . Among the speakers 
was Malcolm E. Morrell '24, director of athletics since 1928. Morrell 
retired in 1967 and died in October 1968. In June 1969, the building was 
rededicated to him. 



THE BACK CAMPUS AND MALL 



"5 



The Lineman 

1932 WILLIAM ZORACH H '58 




In September i960, the sculptor Wil- 
liam Zorach gave the Bowdoin College 
Museum of Art a figure entitled The 
Lineman carved of Swedish granite. 
The architect of the gymnasium, Hugh 
Stubbins, wanted a "central focus 
piece for the entrance to the new 
gymnasium," according to President 
Coles in a letter to William Zorach in 
August 1964. 1 Accordingly, The 
Tineman was moved from the rotunda 
of the Museum of Art to a new pedestal 
at the head of the steps in front of the gymnasium. 

Zorach, his wife, Marguerite, and their children, Tessim and Dahlov, had 
spent summers in Robinhood, Maine, for years. In 1958 he received an 
honorary degree from Bowdoin, and that same year there was a Zorach Day 
on the campus for the artists in the family, William, Marguerite, Dahlov 
(now Ipcar), and a nephew, Jason Schoener. 

Zorach, born in 1887, was a figurative sculptor, a pioneer in carving 
stone directly, at a time when traditional sculptors still assigned the carving 
to others. The Tineman was made in 1932 for the Los Angeles Olympic 
Games and typifies the smooth, rounded surfaces and generic quality of his 
monumental sculpture. A comparable large public sculpture by William 
Zorach in Maine is Spirit of the Sea, a fountain with a bronze figure of a 
woman and a dark granite basin, given by him to the city of Bath and placed 
in a pond in front of the Patten Free Library. 

In the collections of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art are also his 
Spirit of the Dance, a smaller bronze version of the same subject done for 
Radio City Music Hall in 1932, and a monumental limestone head of his 
wife, Marguerite, given in 1985. The collections also include six water- 
colors by him and four watercolors by Marguerite Zorach. 




• si. ■ -. ■ .- 

Original plan for Pickard 
Field, by Robert 
Washburn heal, 1927 



THE THIRD WALK 



The Perimeter 



The central part of the street [Maine Street] is yet but thinly settled ... it contains 
about ioo acres, perfectly level. The street runs nearly through its centre. On the 
west and south of this plain you ascend a second grade of plains elevated about 
twenty feet. . . . On the west side are some elegant seats, that appear to great 
advantage. . . . About forty rods to the eastward of the street I have described is 
Federal Street. ... I understand the original proprietors of the land made it condi- 
tion . . . That all houses on this street should be at least two stories high. . . . About 
twenty houses are already erected with great exactness and symmetry. . . . The 
congregational meeting house is finely situated at the northern extremity of the 
upper grade of plains, near the colleges in the right angle of the turnpike to 
Bath. . . . The Colleges are situated ... at a little distance in a south east direction 
from the . . . meeting house. They are three in number, forming three sides of a 
square ... a neat fence encloses them. 1 

THESE words of description, written in March and April of 1 820 "by a 
Gentleman from South Carolina," were published in Brunswick that 
same year. Little has changed, but perhaps it is in the nature of colleges to 
encourage stability. Maine Street, Bath Street, Harpswell Street, and 
McKeen Street were laid out well before the chartering of Bowdoin Col- 
lege; Federal Street followed before the first classes met; and College Street 
had a house and a name by 1831. 

This walk will start at the President's Gate, proceed along Bath Street, 
follow Maine Street south to Boody Street, and then travel east on College 
Street to Coffin Street. Here will be an excursion to Pickard Field and a 
return to Harpswell Street, Whittier Field, Pine Grove Cemetery, and 
thence to Federal Street. The walk includes structures built and acquired by 
Bowdoin College, chapter houses of the fraternities, and two buildings not 
owned by the College but of significance to it and to the neighborhood. 
Finally, the walk will include the present extremities of the campus, the 
playing fields, and the seven gates that define where Bowdoin College 
begins and Brunswick leaves off. Some of Bowdoin's properties, notably 
the Breckinridge Public Affairs Center, in York, Maine; the Bethel Point 
Marine Research Station, in Harpswell, Maine,; and the Bowdoin Scientific 
Station, on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, are beyond the reach of 
this walk. Of these, only one is of architectural interest. River House, as the 
Breckinridge Public Affairs Center is also known, was designed by Guy 
Lowell in 1905 and given to Bowdoin in 1974 by Marvin Breckinridge 
Patterson to be used for educational and cultural programs. 2 

New building activity around the campus began with the third First 
Parish Church in 1806 and Parker Cleaveland's house on Federal Street the 
same year. 3 Two structures were raised in the late 1820s, Commons Hall on 



I I 8 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Bath Street and the Little-Mitchell House, across the campus on College 
Street. The 1830s were quiet, but the period from 1845 to i860 saw five new 
structures, the present First Parish Church, the Burnett House, the Boody- 
Johnson House, Cram Alumni House, and 8 5 Federal Street. After the Civil 
War Rhodes Hall was built, and President (then General) Chamberlain 
moved and raised his house in 1867. 

Of the present surroundings, the only important change between 1867 
and 1 900 came in 1 890, when the Village Improvement Association and the 
College agreed to create the upper Mall, which divides Maine Street begin- 
ning at Bath Street. Between 1896 and 1905, seven structures and Whittier 
Field were added to the neighborhood. This was also, of course, a period of 
great building activity on the campus, with the erection of Searles Science 
Building, the Walker Art Building, and Hubbard Hall. 

During the 1920s, three gates and two chapter houses were added, so by 
1930 virtually the whole neighborhood was as it is today. To be built were 
Coles Tower, Pickard Field House, two gates, and the Pine Street and 
Harps well Street Apartments. Although rerouting Harps well Street and 
creating Sills Drive in 1948 allowed on-campus development, it had little 
effect outside. 

At almost any point in the history of this area the streetscapes were 
similar to those today. Lot sizes and setbacks have remained, for the most 
part, constant. The domestic scale of the College's surroundings has 
remained undisturbed; it has always provided a counterpoint to the monu- 
mental scale of the buildings on campus. What has changed, of course, are 
the trees, in height and in number. Although the pines have always pro- 
vided a backdrop to the east, they have grown to question the old authority 
of the college buildings. Other trees have been planted or have grown by 
themselves on the surrounding streets to provide shade in the summer and 
a buffer in the winter. The dearth of trees makes old photographs initially 
shocking; the scale of the buildings seems askew and their outlines too 
harsh. 

Even though the college neighborhood has had remarkable stability, it is 
in no sense monotonous. Each street has a different character and offers a 
different perspective of the campus. Walking the perimeter affords yet 
another experience of the strong attraction the campus exerts in its finely 
placed buildings and generous, thoughtful spaces. 



THE PERIMETER 



w jsm 




The President's Gateway 

1932 FELIX ARNOLD BURTON '07 

Until the 1 890s, Bowdoin College and her sister institutions were sur- 
rounded by wooden rail fences. By the turn of the twentieth century a desire 
for monumentality had transformed the entrances to many campuses. The 
President's Gateway is the sixth gate built at Bowdoin and was the twenty- 
fifth-reunion gift of the Class of 1907. 

Before Harpswell Street was rerouted to Federal Street and the Delta 
incorporated into the campus, this gate stood north and slightly east of 
Winthrop Hall, just off the old road. It was named for President Hyde and 
marked the place where he entered the campus from his home at the Presi- 
dent's House, now 85 Federal Street. 

When the gate was moved in 1948, the principal posts were placed fur- 
ther apart to accommodate automobile traffic, while the side posts defined 
pedestrian access. The brick and stone Georgian design with classical 
motifs of pediment-capped square posts, recessed panels, and incised stone 
inscriptions was the work of Felix Arnold Burton '07, a member of the class 
that gave the gift. Burton had already worked on many Bowdoin projects, 
including Hyde Hall and the Sargent Gymnasium with Allen and Collens; 
he was also responsible for a number of Brunswick houses. 



120 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER 



Rhodes Hall 



1 3 Bath Street 
1867 

In a letter of August 1, 1867, to the Trustees of Bowdoin College, "J. P. 
Booker, Sec'y of Board of Agents of Village District" requested permission 
to move the existing frame school building temporarily onto the College's 
Bath Street lot next to Commons in order to build a new schoolhouse on 
the site of the old. 1 According to the research of John Gofffor the Bruns- 
wick Historic Resources Survey, the new building was substantially com- 
pleted by December of that year. The Brunswick Telegraph reported on 
November 8, 1867: "The Primary schoolhouse, on the hill, is now under 
roof and shingled, and the building makes quite an imposing appearance; 
but probably nine out of every ten strangers will look upon it as a College 
building." 

A front facade elevation and ground plan of an identical school built in 
1863 in Westbrook, Maine, were published in a contemporary report on 
Maine schools. 2 The architect of the Westbrook School was George Mil- 
ford Harding of Portland, but there is no evidence that he designed an 
identical building in Brunswick. The published material could, however, 
have been used by a local builder, and Daniel A. Booker, a well-known 
Brunswick housewright, has been suggested by John GofF. 

The Italianate building is handsome and imposing. It is no surprise that 
the Brunswick Telegraph reacted as it did, for the Bath Street Primary School 
has much in common with nearby Adams Hall, also built in the 1860s. 

In Rhodes Hall, as in Adams Hall, the vertical is accented by pilasters and 
by tall, narrow doors and windows. The deeply recessed pediment is 
outlined by wooden moldings and brackets; the shadows are caught as well 
in the hooded entranceways. This was the era of unusually high ceilings, 
which result in attenuated proportions. 

The structure was acquired from the town of Brunswick in 1946 and was 
named Rhodes Hall for three of its Bath Street Primary School students 
who had gone on to become Rhodes Scholars. 3 It has become the 
headquarters of the Departments of Physical Plant and Campus Security. In 
this process Rhodes Hall has gained an ell and is now attached to Commons 
Hall, now known as the carpenter shop. 



122 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 23 



Commons Hall 



1 3 Bath Street 
1829 

In the design of Winthrop and Maine Halls, no provision was made for 
feeding the students. To this day, none of the dormitories except Coles 
Tower has space for dining. In the nineteenth century, the College tried to 
help solve the problem of inequities in undergraduate dining, although it 
stopped short of actually engaging in the food business. 

When Commons Hall was built by the College in 1829, it was rented to 
the College Boarding Club for an amount equal to the return on the invest- 
ment of $1,750. Two years later the College provided a well and an ice 
house, but the student-managed Commons did not last. By the mid- 1840s, 
the building was used for medical lectures; from i860 to 1872, Commons 
served as the gymnasium; and until 1888 it was the analytic chemistry 
laboratory. Shortly thereafter it became a storage area and carpenter shop. 
After the College acquired Rhodes Hall, the two buildings were joined 
together. Today they house the Departments of Physical Plant and Campus 
Security. 

A comparison of Rhodes and Commons Halls summarizes the shift in 
taste between the 1820s and the 1860s, between the Greek Revival and the 
Italianate styles. Although both are brick structures with gable-end front 
facades framed by brick pilasters, they are strikingly different. The principal 
factor is proportion: Commons is a low, self-contained structure, while 
Rhodes Hall strives for height and a lively surface. 

Commons is a curious structure, with the first floor a semi-basement 
story and the second floor windows consequently high in the wall. When 
the building was used for undergraduate dining, the lower story served as 
kitchen and service area and the upper area as dining room. 

Certainly Samuel Melcher III could have done this project, but there is an 
estimate in Special Collections from Anthony Coombs Raymond to build 
Commons Hall for $1,775. There is no further documentary evidence that 
he was hired for the job, but the building is certainly within his style and 
capabilities. 



124 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Class of i8j8 
Gateway 

1904 KILHAM AND HOPKINS 

The second class to celebrate its 
twenty-fifth reunion by giving a 
gateway to the College was the Class of 
1878. Because the College grew from 
Bath Street south, this gate marks an 

ancient boundary, one not dislocated by the road changes of 1948. 

At the gate's dedication in June 1904, Professor Franklin C. Robinson 

said in his acceptance speech, as reported in the Orient: 

It's placed at what is and always has been the main entrance to the college grounds 
used by the undergraduates. For one hundred years and more, the majority of 
students have first stepped foot upon the campus at this point and when after the 
four years were ended, and the final packing up and departures were made it was 
through here that they got that last look of the place they loved so well. 1 

This gateway set the formal precedent for those to follow. It was 
described as a "colonial design" meant to harmoni2e with the "older build- 
ings." Walter Kilham and James Hopkins of Boston, the architects, were 
already adept at the handsome manipulation of revival elements in schools, 
apartment buildings, and country clubs. Like the President's Gateway, 
which followed it in 1932, this gate is tripartite, of brick and stone. The 
posts are finished with ball-shaped finials, and the principal posts are joined 
with a cast-iron arch ornamented in wrought iron with the Bowdoin sun 
surmounted by an open book. 




Detail, Class of 
i8jS Gateway. 
Photograph by 
Richard Cheek. 



THE PERIMETER 



125 




Getchell House 



5 Bath Street 
c. 1900 

The College acquired Getchell House in 1955, the gift of Miss Gertrude 
Bowdoin Getchell, who, with her sister, Miss Grace Tappan Getchell, had 
provided lodging for Bowdoin students. The house, built between 1890 
and 1 9 10, replaced an earlier one shown on the map published in Wheeler's 
History of Brunswick, 1877, visible in old photographs as a two-story white 
frame building. 

The style is Colonial Revival. The hipped roof, projecting double dor- 
mers, deep bracketed cornice, and projecting entrance bay with porch are 
features found in a number of Brunswick houses. If this building does not 
look very "Colonial," it should be remembered that the line between the 
Shingle Style and the Colonial Revival was often tenuous, especially in 
buildings of modest pretensions. Getchell House now shelters the Office of 
Public Relations and Publications. 



126 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 27 



Ham House 



3 Bath Street 
1846 

According to the Brunswick Historic Resources Survey, Ham House was 
built in 1846 for James Rose. Built twenty years after its Greek Revival 
neighbor, Commons Hall, it was a considerably simplified version with 
much less generous — almost pinched — proportions. The use of brick for 
Commons Hall was not unusual, but there are no other modest brick 
dwellings in this part of town. Comparable brick houses are found in only 
one other area of Brunswick, Lincoln Street, which was developed in the 
1 840s. The combination of a brick house with an original frame ell, as this 
one appears to be, is particularly rare. 

James Rose sold the dwelling in 1865 to Daniel Hale, who in turn sold it 
to George W. Hale about 1889. Between 1900 and 1908, perhaps earlier, 
Professor Leslie Alexander Lee was a tenant; the next year the house was 
rented to Professor Frederic Willis Brown; and in 1909 it was leased by 
Professor Roscoe James Ham h '44, who purchased it in 191 2. Leslie Lee 
was professor of geology and biology, and he led the Bowdoin College 
Labrador expedition in 1891. There is a tablet in his honor inside Searles 
Science Building. Frederic Brown was Longfellow Professor of Modern 
Languages until 1948. 

Roscoe Ham came to Bowdoin to teach modern languages in 1901 and, 
except for two years spent at Trinity College, his career was devoted to 
Bowdoin. He taught German, was an early and well-known teacher of 
Russian, and became the George Taylor Files Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages. After he was named emeritus in 1945 , he and his wife, Mary, lived in 
the house until their deaths in 1953- They left the house, which had been a 
popular gathering place, to the College. Now it houses the Upward Bound 
Program — a summer program for secondary school students from rural 
Maine. 



128 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




The First Parish Church 

Maine Street and Bath Street 
1845-1846 RICHARD UPJOHN 

For one hundred fifty-nine years, from 1806 to 1965, the Bowdoin College 
Commencement took place in the First Parish meetinghouse. During that 
period the two institutions were closely intertwined, though there seems to 
have been tension from time to time over the definition of the relationship. 
While never a church-sponsored college, Bowdoin was clearly Congre- 
gational; until 191 7 only one president was not an ordained minister. The 
College had its own chapel after 1 805 , but it was never intended to supplant 
a parish meetinghouse. As long as Sunday church attendance was compul- 



THE PERIMETER 



129 



sory for students, gallery space in the First Parish was reserved for Bowdoin 
undergraduates; most of the faculty were pew holders. 

The original First Parish meetinghouse had been built on Maine Street 
between Pleasant Hill Road and Mere Point Road in 1735, in the midst 
of what was then the principal settlement. With a need for more space 
and with the founding of the College in 1794, the congregation decided to 
build anew, and the area of the College was chosen. In fact, the College 
contributed the land, according to a vote of the Trustees and Overseers on 
October 23, 1805: "to locate said piece of land in such a part of the College 
lands, as shall be most convenient, and least prejudicial to any future 
arrangement for this College." 

The new meetinghouse, according to an early print, was a typical Federal 
frame structure of two stories with projecting three-bayed entrance facade, 
tower, belfry, and cupola. Samuel Melcher III, the builder, seems to have 
derived his design from a plate in the Country Builder's Assistant (1797) by 
Asher Benjamin. This book of plans, elevations, and details was the first 
such book written by an American. Benjamin's book exerted an important 
influence on building in the Federal period. It is said that in 1 806 President 
McKeen conducted the first Commencement in the unfinished structure on 
a rainy day under an umbrella on a staging erected by Aaron Melcher, 
Samuel's brother. 

By 1834 enlargement and improvements were necessary. According to 
Thompson E. Ashby h '30, pastor and historian of the First Parish, the 
architect Anthony Coombs Raymond was in charge. 1 Raymond was shortly 
to undertake the rebuilding and transformation of Maine Hall. Ten years 
later a "Committee to repair, enlarge and improve the Meetinghouse" was 
constituted. The committee included Professor William Smyth, while the 
Finance Committee included Professor Thomas C. Upham. Another pro- 
fessor, Alpheus Spring Packard, served on the committee to get help from 
the College. By November of that year there was a reference to "our new 
meetinghouse," and the parish meeting of February 1 845 authorized taking 
down the old meetinghouse and building a new structure, to be designed 
by Richard Upjohn. 

Upjohn had just begun his work on the Bowdoin College Chapel, so the 
decision of the First Parish to build a new meetinghouse in a new style was 
predictable. It is not clear, however, how a preference for Gothic was 
formed by the Congregationalist committee, nor is it easy to understand 
how William Smyth prevailed upon Richard Upjohn to design in the 
Gothic style for a non-Episcopal congregation. In a letter of November 9, 
1 844, Smyth chided Upjohn and urged him to send a pencil sketch to show 
the committee. He added: "P. S. Let me repeat that the Gothic rather than 
the Romanesque would best suit us." 2 



130 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




The First Parish Church, 



Upjohn, an English emigre, was a devout Anglican. His religious and 
aesthetic views were intertwined, so that he saw Gothic as the style of the 
Church of England. The early development in America of neo-Roman- 
esque rather than Gothic churches for other than Episcopal congregations 
grew directly from his convictions. With the publication of Upjohn' s Rural 
Architecture in 1852, however, he made available plans and elevations of 
modest frame Gothic Revival structures. 3 St. Paul's on Pleasant Street, 
Brunswick, designed in the Gothic style by Upjohn and built in 1845, ls 
Episcopal, but many similar structures of various denominations can be 
seen in small towns all over the northeast. 

In the plan for the First Parish Church, Upjohn put aside his earlier 
convictions and reconciled the Congregational service with a centuries-old 
ground plan evolved in Europe for the Roman Catholic liturgy. In using 
frame construction instead of stone, Upjohn invented in wood a new 
Gothic aesthetic. For the exterior he brought board and batten construc- 
tion to churches as others had to dwellings. The thin batten verticals 
captured some of the upward thrust of the original Gothic. 

It is worthwhile to read the exterior of the First Parish Church, to enu- 
merate the salient pier buttresses, especially those of the tower, to note the 
crowning Gothic pinnacles at corners and atop the intermediate transept 
buttresses, and to appreciate the simple effectiveness of the deep moldings 
surrounding the pointed Gothic windows. The sense of exterior 
massing — the conjunction of tower, nave, and transepts — is subtly 
enhanced by the double pitch of the roof. The original grey brownstone 
color lent an authority to the Gothic details and massing which appear to 
less advantage in the present off-white. 

The work of taking down the old church was begun in April 1845 by 
Isaac Coombs and Coolidge Graves under the supervision of the building- 
committee. By September it was possible to hold Commencement inside 
the new building, although the plastering was not finished until October. 
The structure was finished in December, and the formal dedication held on 
March 18, 1846. 

From inside, the rationale of the double pitch of the roof becomes 
apparent. In his reconciliation of Gothic form — a nave, side aisles, and 
transepts — with Congregational practice, Upjohn made an auditorium 
space on the floor with the skeleton of medieval Gothic above. The elabo- 
rate wood vaulting is resolved into slender piers that do not partition the 
broad interior space. The galleries, too, emphasize the breadth of space and, 
as William Pierson points out in American Buildings and Their Architects: 
Technology and the Picturesque, the chancel is quite shallow in relation to the 



THE PERIMETER I 3 I 



transepts. 4 There was scant appreciation for the ingenuity of Upjohn's 
design in some circles. The Augusta Gospel banner, on July 5, 1845, 
reported: 

The Congregational Church in Brunswick have taken down their large and elegant 
meeting house near the Colleges, and are building a new one like a huge barn. The 
ground floor, we believe, is to be in shape of a crucifix, but the exterior is not to be 
clapboarded, nor the inside lathed or plastered. All the timbers to the very roof are 
to be exposed inside of the house. This humble imitation of a manger will cost only 
about ten or twelve thousand dollars. Pride sometimes dresses in the garments of 
humility. 

There are seven memorial windows. One behind the pulpit was the gift 
of President Chamberlain in honor of Dr. George E. Adams, his father-in- 
law and pastor of the church for forty-one years from 1829 to 1870. The 
window in the north transept gallery is in memory of Bowdoin Professor 
Alpheus Spring Packard; and that in the south transept gallery is in honor 
of the indefatigable Professor William Smyth, who oversaw the con- 
struction. 

In 1892 the attached Parish House and the rooms behind the chancel 
were built. As architects for the addition, the parish retained Rotch and 
Tilden of Boston, who had planned the first Sargent Gymnasium, now the 
Heating Plant, in 1885. The firm made handsome and appropriate designs, 
particularly commendable on such a restricted site. Although the window 
treatment is clearly of the 1890s, it harmonizes well with the 1845 building. 
By 1955 more space was needed for the activities of the church, and Pilgrim 
House was built on Cleaveland Street. 

William Pierson, in his extensive consideration of this church, says that 
the original tower of First Parish was meant to lend a Romanesque air to the 
exterior. It was a campanile, four stages tall, not tapered, and ending in a 
simple parapet with no spire. 5 The pastor, Dr. Adams, wrote to a critic who 
accused the First Parish of "Popery in Maine": 

We shall have no steeple, and therefore (and for no other reason, so far as I am at 
present informed) shall not have "the sign of the Cross on the steeple". Instead of a 
steeple ... we propose to have a square, high tower, which we think, will be a great 
ornament to our village. . . . 6 

Once built the tower was not admired, and by 1 848 the square, top stage 
had been remodeled into the steeply gabled pinnacled form of today, which 
acted as a base for a spire twice as tall. A storm blew the spire offin 1868, the 
year its instigator, William Smyth, died. 



132 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 33 



Chamberlain House 

226 Maine Street 

1824 JESSE PIERCE 

Now owned by the Pejepscot Historical Society 

In 1855, after finishing at Bangor Theological Seminary, Joshua L. Cham- 
berlain, class of 1 8 5 2, married Frances Adams, daughter of the pastor of the 
First Parish Church, and took up his duties at Bowdoin College as 
instructor, first in natural and revealed religion, then in rhetoric and ora- 
tory, and finally, in 1861, in modern languages. 

The house at 4 Potter Street that Joshua and Frances Chamberlain 
bought in 1859 ^ ac ^ a l rea dy undergone some changes since its construction 
in the early 1 820s by Jesse Pierce. The original one-and-one-half-story cape 
had first been enlarged to the rear, perhaps by the second owner, Mary Ann 
Fales, to accommodate tenants such as Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and 
his bride, who lived on the first floor from 1830 to 1832. There is evidence 
that the roof line was changed to cover the addition. 

There were five owners after Mrs. Fales and before the Chamberlains. 
One of them was Anthony Coombs Raymond, Brunswick housewright 
and builder of the present Maine Hall. Internal evidence suggests that it 
was during the time the Chamberlains lived in the house on the original site, 
between 1859 and 1867, that the dormers were added. 

The house as it appears today is the result of the many changes and 
additions worked on it by Joshua Chamberlain. The enthusiastic accretion 
of details reflects the restless ingenuity of Chamberlain's own life. In 1862 
he obtained leave from the College to become a lieutenant colonel in the 
20th Maine Volunteers — he was thirty-four and the father of three children. 
During the Civil War he fought in many battles, received a field promotion 
to brigadier general for personal valor from General Grant, was made a 
major general, and was chosen by Grant to receive Lee's surrender at 
Appomattox Court House, Virginia. In 1893, Chamberlain was awarded 
the Congressional Medal of Honor. 

Immediately after his return from the Civil War, Chamberlain was 
elected to the first of four terms as governor of Maine. In 1871 he accepted 
the positions of president of the College and professor of mental and moral 
philosophy. During his twelve-year tenure, Chamberlain directed a good 
portion of his energy to curriculum reform, especially in the sciences. This 
was the first, brief, period of awarding the Bachelor of Science degree. 
Chamberlain, clearly, was not hampered by tradition in his striving for a 



134 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



more modern college; nor was he daunted by the controversy which arose 
at his institution of military drill for the undergraduates. 

He resigned as president in 1883 and subsequently pursued real estate 
interests in Florida. Then he was for a short time president of the Institute 
of Fine Arts (now part of New York University) in New York City. In 1900, 
he was named United States surveyor of customs at the port of Portland, a 
post he held until his death in 19 14. 

Shortly after his return from the Civil War, Chamberlain had the house 
moved east from 4 Potter Street to the corner of Maine and Potter Streets, 
where it now stands. Between 1867 and 1871 the roof was extended both 
north and south to cover additions — that on the south is now the upper 
loggia — and was bordered by medieval-looking crenellations that were 
repeated around the top of a prominent chimmey. During this period 
Chamberlain installed a cast iron fence on the Maine Street side, with a 
wooden fence bordering Potter Street. In 1 871 the house was raised and the 
present lower story built under it, thereby increasing the space for receiving 
visitors and for entertaining. Six years later, the clapboards on the entrance 
facade were removed, flush boarding was installed, the upper triangular 
lintels were installed, and the roof was reworked into its present truncated 
shape. During the years between 1877 and 19 14 the back piazza was added 
and the crenellations were removed. The house remained in the family until 
it was sold by a granddaughter in 1939. 

Chamberlain appears to have enjoyed adding space and flourishes to his 
home. When he moved the cape to the corner, Burnett House, one block 
away, had been built, as had Cram Alumni House and 8 5 Federal Street, and 
before the structure was raised Rhodes Hall had been built and Memorial 
Hall was under construction. Chamberlain's house bears no visual rela- 
tionship to any of these — nor to any house in Brunswick. Its collection of 
classical columns and pilasters, Italianate lower windows, and Gothic 
arches is unique. 



THE PERIMETER 



135 




Franklin Clement Robinson 
Gateway 

1923 FELIX ARNOLD BURTON '07 

In 1904 Franklin Clement Robinson, a graduate of the class of 1873 and 
Josiah Little Professor of Natural Science, made the acceptance speech for 
the Class of 1878 Gateway. He humorously referred to the slight difference 
in age between this class as it entered and himself, a fledgling teacher. 1 

Only six years later Robinson was dead at the age of fifty-eight. A bronze 
tablet was installed in his memory in Searles Science Building. The inscrip- 
tion reads in part: 



i 5 6 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




The Bowdoin Sun, 
Franklin Clement Robin- 
son Gateway. Photograph 
by Richard Cheek. 



A Profound Student of Nature and Her Laws 
An Accomplished and Beloved Teacher 
A Devoted Son of the College. 

Robinson had worked with architect Henry Vaughan in the planning of 
Searles. He had helped supervise the construction of Hubbard Hall, and he 
had always taken an active interest in the College's buildings and grounds. 
In his own field he was known nationally as well as within Maine for his 
contributions to public health issues. 

In 1922, after the death of their mother, the three Robinson sons 
announced the gift of a gateway. Clement Franklin '03, Dwight '07, and 
Arthur '08 dedicated the gate to both of their parents and had it placed on 
the northwest corner of the campus, the entrance Robinson had used walk- 
ing to Searles Science Building from his home at 214 Maine Street. (St. 
Charles' Church was built on the site of the Robinson house in the early 
1930s. The church building is now occupied by the 5 5 Plus Center, a public 
social club for senior citizens.) 

Each gateway at Bowdoin is distinctive in design and in character; this 
one is easily the most nostalgic and intimate. Its position is less formal than 
those of the other gates, and the use of draped urns to cap the gateposts 
signifies a less militant intention. 

Felix Arnold Burton '07 was chosen to design this gateway. Burton had 
worked for Allen and Collens on the second Sargent Gymnasium and Hyde 
Athletic Building, Hyde Hall, and the Dudley Coe Memorial Infirmary as 
well as on several other buildings in Brunswick. Burton's design for the 
gate consists of square red brick paneled posts resting on granite bases and 
finished with carefully profiled moldings that hold the urns. The iron work, 
by Samuel Yellin of Philadelphia, is full of surprising details. The Bowdoin 
sun that caps the arch is surrounded by a laurel wreath and surmounted by a 
thistle; beneath it are a pair of crossed retorts in relief, and to the sides are 
the monograms of Franklin Clement and Ella Maria Robinson. On the 
reverse of the Bowdoin sun is the Bowdoin coat of arms. The gateway is 
continued on either side of the posts by a curved cast iron fence surmounted 
by delicate wrought iron detail including a caduceus on the left and, on the 
right, a pine tree resting on a plaque bearing the class numerals 1873. 
Inscription tablets are on each side. 

On June 21, 1923, the gateway was presented to the College by the 
donors' uncle, Dr. Daniel A. Robinson, an Overseer and, like his brother, a 
member of the class of 1873. In his speech he referred to Arthur Robinson 
'08, who had just died, and to Warren Eastman Robinson '10, the donors' 
cousin, whose memorial had been dedicated three years earlier. 2 



THE PERIMETER 



M7 




Alpha Delta Phi House 

228 Maine Street 

1924 FELIX ARNOLD BURTON '07 

Alpha Delta Phi was Bowdoin's first fraternity, begun here in 1841 after its 
national founding at Hamilton College in 1832. Early in its history the 
chapter met and members lived in a curious structure nicknamed the 
Chateau, which had been built by President Allen as a college preparatory 
academy approximately on the site of the Boody- Johnson House. It was an 
unusual early Gothic Revival frame structure with pointed Gothic win- 
dows, crenellations, and pinnacles. After the Chateau- was removed, the 
chapter members occupied the south end of Winthrop Hall. Joshua 
Lawrence Chamberlain, class of 1852, was a member about this time. 
Around 1855, meeting and probably dining rooms were upstairs in a com- 
mercial building, now demolished, on the corner of Cleaveland Street and 
Park Row. 



138 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



In 1895 the members bought the present lot on which was a frame 
building of about 1885. This building was sold to C. L. Douglas of Bruns- 
wick, who cut it into sections and moved them to Belmont, Columbia, and 
Thompson Streets to begin his development of Douglas Park. 

Felix Arnold Burton completed the new chapter house for Alpha Delta 
Phi in 1924, a year after he designed the Franklin Clement Robinson 
Gateway, during the second period of fraternity house building on the 
campus. (The first, around the turn of the century, produced the Beta Theta 
Pi House, the original Theta Delta Chi House, the Psi Upsilon House, the 
Delta Kappa Epsilon House, and the Alpha Kappa Sigma House.) Bur- 
ton's design is the prototypical Georgian Revival chapter house built 
during the most vigorous decade of the development of the Georgian 
Revival. McKim, Mead and White's Moulton Union is contemporaneous. 
In this chapter house, Burton looked to eighteenth-century buildings for 
details like the entranceway, which is surmounted by a broken scrolled 
pediment and pineapple; the dormer windows, arched with Gothic tracery; 
the hipped and balustraded roof; and the grouped outer wall chimneys. The 
breadth of the facade and the spacing of the windows mark this as a twen- 
tieth-century building. 

In 1957 the right and rear wings were added. The house was taken over 
by the College and used for general student housing in 1 97 1 . In 1 97 5 , it was 
returned to the chapter. 



THE PERIMETER I 39 



Burnett House 



232 Maine Street 
1858 

The Brunswick Telegraph of October 8, 1858, carried this notice: 

Mr. Henry Martin's house, on the lot next south of his father, is now under roof 
and shingled. The lot is one of the most beautiful in the village, overlooking, as it 
does, the College grounds, and having a street lying on its southern boundary. The 
dimensions of the house are well proportioned, and when the building is com- 
pleted, the grounds graded, the improvement will add much to the attractiveness of 
that part of the town. 

The view from Martin's new house began with a broad Maine Street 
uninterrupted by the present mall, included the white post and rail fence 
that surrounded the College, and then extended across the campus to Mas- 
sachusetts Hall, Winthrop and Maine Halls, the Chapel, and Appleton Hall. 
Martin was a grocer and a director of the new Pejepscot Bank, of which he 
became president in 1875. Sixty-one years later, in May 1919, the Misses 
Annie and Abbie Martin sold the house to Charles Theodore Burnett and 
his wife, Sue Winchell Burnett. 



140 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Charles Burnett came to Bowdoin in 1904 as instructor in psychology 
and assistant registrar; in 1909 he was made full professor, and in 19 14 he 
and Sue Winchell, a cellist, were married. From 1919 until his death in 1946, 
the Burnetts were deeply involved in the life of the College, in music, and in 
the life of Brunswick. Mrs. Burnett lived in the house until her death in 
1962. The Sue Winchell Burnett Prize in Music was established in her 
memory. The College acquired the 232 Maine Street house shortly 
thereafter. 

Phi Delta Psi, recently disaffiliated from Alpha Tau Omega, traded its 
property at 65 Federal Street (now the Stowe House parking lot) with the 
College for 232 Maine Street in 1964. The fraternity had begun after World 
War I as an independent. By 1929 the members had become a chapter of 
ATO. As college society changed after the war, Phi Delta Psi was one of 
three fraternities (the others were Delta Sigma in 1952 and Kappa Sigma in 
1965) that sought independence. By the late sixties there were fewer frater- 
nity members in the Bowdoin student body, and Phi Delta Psi disbanded 
completely in 1970. The College once more acquired the property, which is 
now a dormitory; the ell contains printmaking studios for the Department 
of Art. 

The design of Burnett House speaks eloquently for an era in Brunswick 
when commerce was flourishing and the visible benefit was the construc- 
tion of numerous large, solid, handsome Italianate houses. Of those that 
remain, there are both brick and frame examples. The Pejepscot Historical 
Society's Skolfield-Whittier House on Park Row, which was under con- 
struction at the same time as this one, and the society's former headquarters 
at 1 1 Lincoln Street, the Captain George McManus House, are brick, while 
8 5 Federal Street and the Delta Sigma House on Maine Street are frame. 

Since it is known that the architect Francis Henry Fassett designed 
Adams Hall, it is tempting to attribute similar structures to him. But in the 
absence of supporting documents it is difficult to go beyond noting that 
Burnett House, 85 Federal Street, and the Delta Sigma house are strikingly 
similar and could have been designed by the same person, even by the 
person who designed Adams Hall. Burnett House (along with its sisters) is 
a generous example of the fashionable Italianate style, even without its 
original cupola, roof and portico balustrades, and side porch. The matched 
boards and quoin-marked corners, the deep overhang of the hipped roof, 
the strongly profiled window crowns, and, above all, the obvious great 
height of the rooms in the first and second stories, define the style. The attic 
is tucked under the roof in order to maintain a silhouette unbroken by 
dormers. 



THE PERIMETER 141 



Class of 1 87 j Gateway 

1902 McKIM, MEAD AND WHITE 

The first of the memorial gateways was given by the Class of 1875 and 
designed by McKim, Mead and White. The firm was stipulated by the 
class's chief benefactor, William John Curtis, who had been born in Bruns- 
wick and who took the initiative for this gift. Curtis's widespread influence 
(he was a Trustee from 191 5 to 1927) and gifts (which included two 
endowed chairs) were augmented by his family after his death, when they 
established the Bowdoin Prize in his honor. He allowed the Orient to print 
the architect's rendering of the gateway project in December 1901, and he 
presented the gateway at the dedication in June 1902. The acceptance 
speech was made by Professor Henry L. Chapman, class of 1866. 



142 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




This gateway, so unlike the others, drew its share of 
discussion. The Orient article of December 12, 1901, 
explains the design rationale: 

The class originally contemplated erecting iron gates, but 
after a full consideration of the subject by the Faculty, as 
well as by the members of the Board of Trustees, and of the 
committee of the class, it was thought unwise to erect gates 
which would necessitate the building of a fence along the 
whole campus. 

This may well be a reference to the work begun that 
same year at Harvard, which gradually enclosed its 
yard with iron and brick. 

A few years later Montgomery Schuyler, the con- 
temporary architectural critic who wrote a series in 
the Architectural Record between 1909 and 191 2 enti- 
tled "Architecture of American Colleges," mistakenly 
attributed the Class of 1 878 Gateway on Bath Street to 
McKim, Mead and White and dismissed the Class of 
187/ gift as "rather of a cemeterial than a domestic or a collegiate connota- 
tion, but which serves the same excellent purpose of warning out the pro- 
fane and vulgar." 1 "Warning out" was the intention neither of the class nor 
of the architect. 

On a campus where it has always been difficult to identify the principal 
entrance, the choice of a path leading from Maine Street directly to the 
Chapel was appropriate and visually effective. The forms the architect chose 
are as formal and symbolic as the placement. Two bronze-banded Doric 
columns are flanked by two urns on pedestals. The components come from 
classical antiquity, where they are found in public places and gardens. 
McKim, Mead and White had used similar but larger columns in 
Brooklyn's Prospect Park, done contemporaneously with some of their 
Bowdoin work, 1894 to 1901. 

Before 1975 the visual link between the gateway's sober formality and 
the Walker Art Building was easier to make. The Visual Arts Center has 
now obscured the gateway from inside the quadrangle. From the outside, 
the once-monumental entrance has suffered a change in scale by its close 
juxtaposition to the new building. 



The Class of iSyj 
Gateway as it once 




A lion on the Class of 
1 87 j Gateway. Photo- 
graph by Richard Cheek. 



THE PERIMETER 



*43 




Alpha Rho Up si Ion House 

238 Maine Street 
c. 1900 

Like many early Colonial Revival structures, this building owes a great debt 
to the Shingle Style. The picturesque massing with free and insistent use of 
the gambrel roof form comes from the Shingle Style, while the sometime 
symmetry and details emerge from the Colonial Revival. Palladian win- 
dows, balustrades, and Ionic columns are the classical details, picked out in 
white, that are combined with less restrained elements like the low roofline, 
the off-center entranceway, and other subtle asymmetries. The rich combi- 
nation of clapboard and shingle in a dark color was typical of this sort of 
dwelling. A one-story sun porch was added to the south side before 1952; 
since then there have been extensive changes to the building's facade, 
obscuring the effect of the two pronounced gambrel gables. 



144 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



The house was built by George Taylor and Edith Davis Files on the site 
of an earlier, smaller structure sometime between 1894 and 1900. George 
Files graduated from Bowdoin in 1889 and was a professor of German for 
almost thirty years. He died in 191 9, upon his return from France, where he 
had gone with the YMCA to help the war effort. In 1921 Mrs. Files estab- 
lished the George Taylor Files Professorship in Modern Languages. 

That same year their house was bought by the local chapter of Sigma Nu 
fraternity. The membership had been formed in 19 14, and in 19 18 an affilia- 
tion was made with the national Sigma Nu. Sigma Nu remained at 238 
Maine Street until 195 1, when it sold the house to Alpha Rho Upsilon and 
bought the Hartley Cone Baxter House on College Street. 

Alpha Rho Upsilon was founded in 1946, an outgrowth of the 
Thorndike Club, which had come into being in 1937 as an eating club for 
the five percent of students who were not fraternity members. The mem- 
bers of ARU ("all races united") had space first in Moore Hall, then bought 
a house at 264 Maine Street. (This structure and its neighbor at 262 had 
been built by the College in 1892 as faculty housing). When the Sigma Nu 
members sold the former Files house at 238 Maine Street to ARU, they 
received the house at 264 Maine as part of the payment. 



THE PERIMETER 



*45 




Beta Theta Pi House 

14 McKeen Street 

1901 WILLIAM R. MILLER 

1927 JOHN HOWARD STEVENS 

William R. Miller was born in Durham, Maine, in 1 866 and was practicing 
in Lewiston when he designed this house for the newly formed chapter of 
Beta Theta Pi. As was true of most architects in the early years of this 
century, Miller was an accomplished eclectic: among his works were the 
Casco Castle in Freeport, Morse High School in Bath, and the Elm Street 
Theatre in Portland. At Bowdoin his two fraternity structures were in 
different styles: the original Theta Delta Chi chapter house had the pictur- 
esque irregularities of the Shingle Style, while the Beta Theta Pi house is in 
the balanced classical mode. 



146 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



In an article of March 26, 1903, the Bowdoin Orient described the Beta 
house as "colonial in style." The article continues: "Four large pillars 
support a portico over the entrance." A product of the 1876 Centennial 
Exposition held in Philadelphia, the Colonial Revival had acquired by 1901 
an extensive repertoire that included southeastern as well as northeastern 
forms drawn from examples rather widely spaced in time. The formality 
and prominence of a full two-story portico were appealing to many frater- 
nity members and appear later on the Alpha Kappa Sigma house. 

Miller's solution to housing at least seventeen chapter members was to 
design a foursquare rectangular frame container with an ell, articulated by a 
hipped roof, dormers with triangular pediments, numerous symmetrically 
placed windows, and the large portico surmounted by a triangular 
pediment. A photograph accompanying the 1903 Orient article shows that 
the house was not white — perhaps gold or light green — and only the cor- 
nices, window moldings, and portico were white. The use of two colors 
(and a third for the shutters) must have made the structure seem visually 
richer and more expansive. The original clapboards were wooden, and the 
portico columns were crowned by Ionic capitals with balustrades on either 
side. 

In 1927, when it was proposed to remodel the interior spaces, John 
Howard Stevens, a partner of his father, John Calvin Stevens, was chosen as 
architect. 



THE PERIMETER 



H7 







-.- ;;.'.;r 



Theta Delta Chi House 

5 McKeen Street 

1904 WILLIAM R. MILLER 

1942 FELIX ARNOLD BURTON '07 

A startling transformation took place between summer 1941 and March 
1942 on the southwest corner of McKeen and Maine Streets. Theta Delta 
Chi chapter house was successfully hidden in a red brick envelope that 
"produces a house that is Georgian in its style, one that has a definite 
collegiate feeling." The brochure arguing for the change called the original 
brown Shingle Style house "wrong" because Bowdoin and Brunswick 
were clearly "early American" and the 1904 house showed a "complete 
absence of any collegiate feeling in its design." 1 

The structure thus lost to view had been built in 1904 as Theta Delta 



148 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Chi's first chapter house. From 1854 to 1904 the 
members had met in various places, the last being 
the third floor of the Martin house (now Burnett 
House) at 232 Maine Street. When William R. 
Miller of Lewiston designed the original house, he 
was also working on the Beta Theta Pi house, Psi 
Upsilon was building next door, and Delta Kappa 
Epsilon was building on the corner of College and 
Maine Streets. Miller's design included a piazza 
that extended across the Maine Street facade and 
wrapped around the northeast corner of the building. But the steep asym- 
metric gables, clustered windows, and picturesque projections that were 
appealing in 1904 had lost their charm in 1941. 

Felix Arnold Burton's architectural scheme reoriented the building to 
McKeen Street, substituting typical classical clarity for the shadowy nooks 
and organic sprawl of an earlier day. The result of Burton's design is a 
handsome, self-assured building with a fine sense of massing. The project- 
ing entrance portion with its strong pediment is echoed on the south facade 
by the terrace and the pedimented center section. 

Harvey Dow Gibson, class of 1902, for whom Gibson Hall is named, was 
a member of Theta Delta Chi. He paid for the transformation of the chapter 
house, which is reported to have cost $65,000. 



The 1904 Theta Delta 
Chi House 



THE PERIMETER 



149 




Psi Upsilon House 

250 Maine Street 

1900-1903 JOHN CALVIN STEVENS 

Between 1900 and 1905, six new fraternity houses and three imposing 
private residences altered the scale of the college neighborhood. In five 
cases the Colonial Revival style was chosen, and in the other four the 
Shingle Style. Of the latter only one remains, the chapter house of Psi 
Upsilon fraternity on Maine Street. 

When the Psi Upsilon house went up, the house on thenorthwest corner 
of McKeen and Maine Streets had been built in 1 894 by Barrett Potter, class 
of 1878 and counsel to the College, from plans by John Calvin Stevens. 
Next door George Taylor Files built his house, which now belongs to 
Alpha Rho Upsilon. Files was a member of Psi Upsilon and was instrumen- 
tal in securing the services of Stevens for the new chapter house. 



I 50 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



John Calvin Stevens's career began in the Portland office of architect 
Francis Fassett in 1873. He left to open his own practice in 1884 and was 
joined in 1888 by Albert Winslow Cobb. Examples of American Domestic 
Architecture, published by the two architects, not only illustrated Shingle 
Style structures but bolstered the plans with a reformist rationale that 
urged, among other notions, flexible ground plans. 1 

The Shingle Style was a predominantly domestic style embodying pre- 
scient modern ideas. These shingled buildings have a minimum of details, 
depending upon generous, irregular massing for their impact. Denys Peter 
Myers in the Maine Catalog has written with great understanding of 
Stevens's work, using the word astylar to emphasize the uniqueness of 
Shingle Style design. 2 

The Psi Upsilon house is difficult to describe in standard classical archi- 
tectural language. The unusually broad front gable is the organizing form 
of the principal facade; two other gables grow out of it to the north and the 
south, extending the size and introducing contrapuntal shapes. The south 
side operates in a cascade of shapes from gable to projecting bay to the dark 
voids of the porch below. The rear wings complete the form of a K, a 
whimsical iconography that derives from the local chapter name, Kappa. 

What holds this multitude of forms together is the lively sheath of shin- 
gles, typically painted a dark color. Before the window moldings and eave 
lines were picked out in white, a curious and unsettled neo-classical "cor- 
rection," the windows and other openings maintained the plane, and the 
dark shadows under eaves and in porches were more effective. 

This building is rightly esteemed for its inventive and satisfying architec- 
tural solutions, especially since it stands apart from the Georgian and Fed- 
eral Revival structures that Stevens was designing at the same time. 

Stevens, who lived from 1855 to 1940, left in and outside of Maine an 
impressive body of architecture that includes dwellings, commercial struc- 
tures, and institutional and government buildings. He was an early 
developer of the Shingle Style, but, like McKim, Mead and White, turned 
to Classical Revival forms. His firm's work has been continued by his son, 
John Howard, his grandson, John Calvin II, and now his great-grandson, 
Paul. Portland is particularly rich in Stevens buildings, among which are his 
own house at 5 2 Bowdoin Street, built in 1 884, and the Oxford Building on 
Middle Street of 1887. 



THE PERIMETER 



HI 




Ash by House 



254 Maine Street 
1845-185 5 

Ashby House is architecturally comparable to Ham House and was built in 
the same decade, in the Greek Revival mode. In both structures the gable 
end is emphasized, and both are of modest dimensions. Ashby House is also 
comparable to the Little-Mitchell House, for it, too, seems to have been 
designed as a two-family dwelling with the gable end to the street. 

At Ashby House the Greek Revival details include the enclosed gable, 
corner pilasters, and the doorway on the north. There have been, however, 
numerous additions and changes. The bracketed door hood on the south is 
later than the entrance on the north. A continuous dormer raises the roof 
on the north, while two discrete dormers expand the third-floor space on 
the south. A two-story studio space extends the building to the west, and 



I 5 2 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



the original clapboard surface is hidden by a combination of thin brittle 
metal siding and wood grained vinyl siding with what can only be 
described as French Provincial non-moveable metal shutters. 

Changes of consequence were made by Mrs. Thompson E. Ashby at 
some point between 191 7 and December 17, 1950, when the Brunswick 
Record noted the work done by her "as a hobby and a business" on "her . . . 
house, originally the Pennell place at 252-254 Maine Street, . . . now con- 
verted into three apartments and a two story house." 1 

The Ashbys came to Brunswick in 191 7, when Thompson Ashby 
became pastor of the First Parish Church. The Reverend Mr. Ashby was a 
respected and well-loved minister and citizen of Brunswick with close ties 
to Bowdoin College, which gave him an honorary Doctor of Divinity 
degree in 1930. After thirty-four years serving the First Parish, he retired in 
195 1 and died in 1953. His wife remained in Brunswick until 1962; when 
she died in 1968, her funeral was in the First Parish Church. 

Ashby House was sold to the College in 1961. For a number of years, it 
served as a faculty residence, then as student housing. It now houses the 
Department of Sociology and Anthropology. 



THE PERIMETER I 5 3 




Boody- Johnson House 

256 Maine Street 

1849 GERVASE WHEELER 

The Gothic Revival "cottage- villa" at 256 Maine Street was the product of 
two adventurous spirits, Henry Hill Boody and Gervase Wheeler. Boody, 
of the class of 1842, taught Greek at Bowdoin from 1842 to 1845 an ^ then 
taught rhetoric until 1854, when he left the College to serve in the Maine 
legislature and to pursue a successful career in timber and railroads. He 
served as a Trustee from 1864 to 1871. 



154 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Gervase Wheeler was an Englishman of Boody's age who emigrated to 
New York in the 1 840s. Wheeler had architectural training and was experi- 
enced in interior polychromy. This latter skill brought him to the attention 
of President Leonard Woods, whose design for the Chapel, then under 
construction, included polychrome decoration. Richard Upjohn, the archi- 
tect of the Chapel, reluctantly agreed to allow Wheeler's abilities to be 
tested in the design and execution of decoration for Banister Hall. Wheeler 
was installed in Brunswick from fall 1 847 to May 1 848, when he was forced 
to leave because of financial misunderstandings. 

By the time he left, Wheeler had already designed the Boody- Johnson 
House and had begun a design for a president's house. He was an 
unabashed opportunist who continued to cause Upjohn difficulty on other 
projects. *His estimate to Henry Boody for the house was twenty-five hun- 
dred dollars; the final cost was five thousand, according to a letter from 
Boody to his mother. 2 

The house Wheeler designed for Boody became widely known within a 
few years, for one of Wheeler's enterprises was the publication of house 
designs. In August 1849 The Horticulturist published an engraving of the 
elevation and a ground plan entitled "An English Cottage." 3 The house is 
called "A Plain Timber Cottage-Villa" in Andrew Jackson Downing's The 
Architecture of Country Houses in 1850, and in an 1853 publication, The 
Carpenter's Assistant, it appears as "Timber Villa, in the Gothic Style." 4 

In 1849, when Boody's house was completed, it was the most imposing 
on Maine Street. It was also one of only three Brunswick structures in the 
new style. The other two were churches: the First Parish and St. Paul's. It is 
not difficult to imagine the impression the new house made, for it was quite 
unlike any other dwelling in Brunswick. The new technique of using verti- 
cal boards with thin, chamfered battens to cover the junctures complements 
the unusually steep roof and pointed gables. The decorative bargeboards 
draw attention to the frame bracing in the gables, an outward sign of the 
inner building skeleton. These braces, which are repeated in the projecting 
entrance portico (an early alteration), are familiar elements of frame "Victo- 
rian" construction, but in 1849 their taut lightness provided a startling 
contrast to the cubic aesthetic of the Greek Revival. 

Celebrating frame construction became a preoccupation of Gervase 
Wheeler, Andrew Jackson Downing, and other architects and writers of 
the mid-nineteenth century. Marked by an informal, often asymmetrical 
design and picturesque silhouette, a romantic American Gothic style 
became widely available. This early example is generally symmetrical in 
plan and elevation, as are many of the published plans. Twin front gables, 
however, are seen less often than a central peak surmounting the 
entranceway. 



THE PERIMETER I 5 5 



When Henry Hill Boody decided to leave teaching, he rented his house 
until 1870, when it was sold to William Stanwood Perry. In 1892 Perry's 
widow sold the house to Henry Johnson, class of 1874, professor of 
modern languages and first director of the Museum of Art. Johnson bought 
the house just as negotiations and planning for the new art museum were 
being concluded. The lives of the Johnson family were intertwined with the 
College from the 1880s until 1957. After the death of Frances Robinson 
Johnson, wife of Henry Johnson, their older daughter, Helen, and her 
husband, Stanley Perkins Chase, class of 1905 and from 1926 to 195 1 Henry 
Leland Chapman Professor of English, lived in the house until their deaths, 
respectively, in 195 1 and 1957. 

The house has been very little changed. For those familiar with the early 
pattern books, the most noticeable alteration is the entranceway, which was 
done rather early. In place of a Gothic arched covered porch that fitted 
between the projecting gable portions, the porch roof was extended four 
feet and elaborated into a gable. An upper porch was added for the John- 
sons' invalid daughter, Anne Johnson Robinson, after World War II. While 
the paint color is doubtless close to the original, shutters were never 
included in the published prints. The windows were shown capped by 
Gothic drip moldings, which may well have been the color of the walls and 
not picked out in white. 

In the late 1920s Professor and Mrs. Chase, who lived next door at 254 
Maine Street (Ashby House) until the 1940s, asked Felix Arnold Burton to 
remodel the barn space that is now called the Chase Barn Chamber. The 
architect created an Elizabethan upper chamber which has been used for 
Bowdoin classes, meetings, performances, and social gatherings for over 
half a century. 

Helen Johnson Chase left the house to the College in 1957, and from 
1958 to 1987 it was the residence of the dean of the College. In 1988 it 
became the home of the president of the College. 



i 5 6 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Warren Eastman Robinson 
Gateway 

1920 FELIX ARNOLD BURTON '07 

On February 24, 19 19, Helen Johnson Chase wrote to her sister, Anne 
Johnson Robinson: 

Mother [Frances Johnson] wrote about your thinking of the gates. The ones 
Kenneth [President Sills] advocates must be those that Father [Henry Johnson] got 
Arnold Burton (wasn't it — I'm quite sure) to design in the hope that someone 
would thereupon give them — and doubtless as a preventative of people's giving 
others as miscellaneous as the ones near the Art Building. 1 

The intricacies of Bowdoin College relationships and opinions could not 
be better illustrated than in this bit of family correspondence. Warren 
Eastman Robinson, a 1910 Bowdoin graduate and nephew of Franklin 
Clement Robinson, class of 1873, had married Professor Henry Johnson's 
daughter Anne in 19 14. After receiving an A.M. from Harvard and while 
teaching at Boston Latin School, Warren Robinson joined the Massachu- 
setts Cavalry. He served on the Mexican border in 19 16, and was sent to 
France, where he died of wounds on November 6, 19 18, only days before 
the Armistice. His obituary in the Brunswick Record described him: "Like all 
his father's people, he told a story capitally, and he had the keenest relish of 
absurdities . . . there was about him a certain merriness of heart." 2 



THE PERIMETER I 57 



When her husband left for France, Anne Robinson returned to live with 
her mother in Brunswick. A Christmas gift in 191 8 from her sister and 
brother-in-law made it possible for her to commission and give a memorial 
to her husband. There were various proposals for the site of the gateway; 
the final choice was within sight of the Johnson house. (At this time there 
were already two gateways, that of the Class of 1875 "near the Art Build- 
ing" and of the Class of 1878 on Bath Street.) 

Arnold Burton was a friend of the family. He had lived in Brunswick 
before World War I and had already done, with Allen and Collens, the 
Sargent Gymnasium/Hyde Athletic Building, Dudley Coe Infirmary, and 
Hyde Hall. His design uses two simple Georgian posts, decorated with 
inscribed tablets and surmounted by handsome finials. Bridging these is a 
fine outburst of wrought iron, arching up to a lantern. The exuberance of 
the wrought iron is a reminder of the Rococo which lingers in the classical 
lines of some Georgian architecture. The iron was made by Samuel Yellin, 
the Philadelphia master of wrought iron who also worked on the Franklin 
Clement Robinson Gateway. 

The gateway was dedicated at Commencement in June 1920. Robert 
Hale, a 1 910 classmate of Robinson's and later a lawyer and congressman, 
made the presentation on Anne Robinson's behalf, and President Sills gave 
the acceptance speech. 



i 5 8 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




Chi Psi House 

7 Boody Street 

1932 H. HERBERT WHEELER 



Bowdoin's third fraternity, the present-day Chi Psi, was founded in 1844. 
Then called Phi Theta Upsilon, it counted among its early members Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court Melville Weston Fuller, class of 1853; 
Thomas Hamlin Hubbard, class of 1857, donor of Hubbard Hall and 
Hubbard Grandstand; and Thomas Brackett Reed, class of 1 860, speaker of 
the United States House of Representatives. 

Like many Bowdoin fraternities, Phi Theta Upsilon became inactive in 
the late 1860s. It was revived in 1916 and occupied a lodge on Pleasant 
Street in the Mansard-roofed building now occupied by the Treworgy Fur- 
niture Company. In 1 9 1 8 the fraternity became the Alpha Eta chapter of Chi 
Psi, and in 1920 moved to a house (now gone) at 183 Maine Street, near the 
First Parish Church. 



THE PERIMETER I 59 



Those fraternities that had not built lodges at the turn of the century 
began planning for new ones in the 1920s: Alpha Delta Phi's house was 
completed in 1924; Zeta Psi's in 1929. Alpha Kappa Sigma renovated and 
remodeled their lodge in 1930. Chi Psi built this house at 7 Boody Street in 
1932, the year the President's Gate was dedicated. 

The Chi Psis were fortunate, in the opening days of the Depression, to 
find a major donor. John W. Anderson, former national president of Chi 
Psi, original counsel to the Ford Motor Company, and an 1 890 graduate of 
the University of Michigan, gave $40,000 of the $68,500 needed for land, 
building, and furnishings. The new chapter house was dedicated to Ander- 
son's father, Wendell Abraham Anderson, a physician who had served with 
distinction in the medical service during the Civil War and was twice mayor 
of LaCrosse, Mississippi. His father, John Anderson's grandfather, Abra- 
ham Wendell Anderson, graduated from the Medical School of Maine in 
1829. 

The building was designed by New York architect H. Herbert Wheeler 
in the prevailing Neo-Georgian style and built by the H. N. Lithgow Com- 
pany of Brunswick. The architect found ideal proportions for this partly 
domestic, partly institutional structure. In the seven-bay, two-and-one-half 
story facade, the density of the red brick is lightened by eighteen windows 
and the principal entrance. The window openings vary: on the first floor 
they are capped by shallow, segmental brick arches; on the second by 
straight brick lintels; in the dormers by triangular pediments. The gambrel 
roof and the placement of the chimney stacks at the ends of the building 
enliven the silhouette, while the entranceway is deep enough to capture 
shadows. 

Chi Psi is the only chapter house that cannot be seen from a distance. The 
architect took advantage of this position on a narrow street to make a 
strong statement by adding no shutters to the white-trimmed red brick. 

Bowdoin students are free to join Chi Psi, but the fraternity is not cur- 
rently officially recognized by the College. Its membership chose to become 
independent in August of 1982 rather than to abide by the college policy of 
equal participation in fraternities by women. 



l6o THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER l6l 



Delta Sigma House 

259 Maine Street 
1874 

In 1905 , when the Delta Upsilon members wanted to join the other fraterni- 
ties on Maine Street, they bought the Benjamin Greene house and had it 
moved from lower Maine Street to its present site. Railroad officials feared 
the unwieldy caravan would obstruct trains as it crossed the Maine Central 
Railroad tracks, so Mr. Vigue, the stationmaster, blocked the crossing with 
a locomotive. Mr. Wellman, the house-moving contractor, countered by 
placing the blocks and timbers on the siding, whereupon Mr. Vigue 
brought out a second locomotive. A compromise was reached, and the 
house crossed the tracks safely in one hour and thirty-five minutes. 1 

Benjamin Greene had been agent and clerk of the Cabot Manufacturing 
Company, makers of cotton cloth, when he had the house built on the 
corner of Maine and O'Brien (now Cumberland) Streets. It "promises to be 
a prominent building," said the Brunswick Telegraph. 2 Later newspaper 
accounts use the word mansion. At the time of the move — and possibly 
until 1933 — the house retained its square balustraded cupola, the roof line 
balustrade, and a veranda to the north of the entrance portico. Early photo- 
graphs also confirm the original paint to have been a medium color with 
darker trim. The eyebrow window surrounds and intermediate moldings 
were formerly a darker color and therefore much livelier. 3 This Italianate 
building belongs to the same stylistic family as the Burnett House and 8 5 
Federal Street in plan and elevation, with minor variations in cupola shape, 
projecting bays, and porches. It was, however, built almost twenty years 
later, during the widespread adoption of the new Mansard style and on a 
considerably more restricted site than the one it now occupies. 

Delta Sigma fraternity is an independent local fraternity derived from 
Delta Upsilon, which was founded at Williams College in 1834. The Bow- 
doin chapter was formed in 1 8 5 7, the sixth fraternity at the College. Interest 
languished in the 1860s, but the chapter was again active in 1892. The 
chapter pledged a black student in 1945 or 1946 and received a warning 
from the national organization not to pledge another. When they pledged 
the second black student in 1 95 1 , they broke from the national organization 
and became Delta Sigma. 



1 62 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 63 



Delta Kappa Epsilon House 

4 College Street 

1901 CHAPMAN AND FRAZER 

From its establishment in 1 844 as Bowdoin's fourth fraternity, Delta Kappa 
Epsilon, like the other early fraternities, found meeting rooms over stores 
and in business blocks until the turn of the century, when the large formal 
chapter houses were built. On April 26, 1900, the Orient commented on the 
plans for the new house: "The old colonial type of building with its simple 
lines seems to fit into the surroundings admirably. The grand old portal will 
give dignity to the front, but will not materially interfere with the interior 
rooms." "Grand old portal" as a phrase to describe a doorway not yet built 
conveys the remarkable power of architectural style as the bearer of tradi- 
tional values. 

The new structure stood where Samuel Melcher III had built a house for 
Samuel Newman in 1821. When the land was sold, Newman's large Greek 
Revival house was moved to 7 South Street, where it can be seen today. 

The fraternity selected Chapman and Frazer of Boston to design their 
house. The firm had done other fraternity houses and some summer cot- 
tages in Kennebunkport and Bar Harbor. John H. Chapman, who had 
begun the practice in 1882, was joined by Horace S. Frazer in 1 892, and the 
firm continued until 1930. Their repertoire in 1900 included both Shingle 
Style and Colonial Revival. 

Here is the grand style of the Colonial Revival replete with columns, 
pediments, balustrades, pilasters, and a Palladian window. The foursquare, 
symmetrical elevation, held together by a larged hipped roof, disguises an 
interior which in ground plan and color derives from Shingle Style aesthe- 
tics. The Orient article lists some of the interior features: inglenooks and 
settles, black walnut, and California redwood. The warmth of intention of 
the interior was at one time reflected on the exterior. Earlier photographs 
show the body of the house a color deeper than white with the columns, 
pilasters, balustrades, and other features picked out in a paler color. 1 This 
painting scheme made the house look larger and more stable, and the 
richness of detail was shown to greater advantage. 



164 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Little-Mitchell House 

6—8 College Street 

1827 SAMUEL MELCHER III 

To compare this Greek Revival double house with the Parker Cleaveland 
house of 1806 at 75 Federal Street is to appreciate the range and versatility 
of Samuel Melcher III, designer and builder of many Bowdoin College and 
Brunswick structures. In his first commission for the new college, Massa- 
chusetts Hall, and again in the Little-Mitchell House, Melcher successfully 
faced a financial challenge with resourcefulness. On the street facade Mel- 
cher took advantage of the doubled space to make a broad pediment of 
generous templelike proportions. The plan today (the ells to the rear of 
each side have been removed) is a T with prominent gables to the west and 
to the east. The intersections of the roof and the height of the chimneys are 
especially handsome. 



THE PERIMETER I 65 



This building was almost always owned or occupied as a dwelling by 
Bowdoin faculty members. It appears to have been built speculatively for 
Samuel Phillips Newman after he had Melcher build a house for him where 
Delta Kappa Epsilon now stands. Newman was on the Bowdoin faculty 
from 1 8 18 until 1839, teaching Latin, Greek, rhetoric, oratory, civil polity, 
and political economy in that time. He served as acting president from 183 1 
to 1833 and died in 1842. 

The first two owners of the house were Alpheus Spring Packard and 
William Smyth. Packard, class of 18 16, Collins Professor of Natural and 
Revealed Religion from 1 864 to 1 884, and acting president at the time of his 
death in 1884 at age eighty-six, taught at Bowdoin for sixty-five years, 
certainly a record for Bowdoin and perhaps for colleges and universities in 
the United States. William Smyth, class of 1822, professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy, taught at Bowdoin from 1823 until his death in 
1868. William Smyth was instrumental in the building of the First Parish 
Church and was an ardent Abolitionist who maintained in his house a 
"station" on the underground railroad. Both Packard and Smyth married 
in 1827, the year the house was built. 

The Packard half was bought in 1909 by Wilmot Brookings Mitchell, 
class of 1890, professor of rhetoric and oratory. (This side had been rented 
from 1885 to 1892 to Henry Johnson, curator of the art collections, and his 
wife, Frances.) The original Smyth portion was acquired by George T. 
Little, class of 1877, first a professor of Latin, then the college librarian 
from 1883 until his death in 191 5. Little assumed responsibility for the 
library when it was still in Banister Hall. He undertook the planning and 
supervising of the building of Hubbard Hall and developed the modern 
Bowdoin library. He was also a skilled mountain climber. 

Wilmot Brookings Mitchell left his share of the house to the College in 
1 96 1. The other part was then bought and the whole used for departmental 
and administrative offices until 1969. During that summer the College ren- 
ovated and restored the Little-Mitchell House to serve the needs of the 
growing Afro- American Society and to aid in the development of the Afro- 
American Studies Program. In 1979 the building was renamed the John 
Brown Russwurm Afro-American Center, in honor of Bowdoin's first 
black graduate, class of 1 826, who became governor of the colony of Mary- 
land in Liberia. 



i66 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 67 



Coles Tower, Wentworth Hall, 
and Chamberlain Hall 

1964 HUGH STUBBINS 

In late October 1964, the Senior Center was dedicated on the Bowdoin 
campus. In its next issue, Newsweek ran an article about it entitled "Spike's 
Peak"; the following June, Architectural Record published an article entitled 
"Ivory Tower for Bowdoin College." 1 Although modern tall buildings on 
campuses were no longer novel — Hugh Stubbins was concurrently work- 
ing on four others — the site and the program at Bowdoin attracted wide 
attention. 

President Sills had first enunciated the idea: "I have long advocated a 
dormitory for seniors ... it would emphasize college and class rather than 
fraternity." 2 But it was his successor as president, James Stacy (Spike) 
Coles, who gave form to this need. 

In its report in June 1962, the Committee on Plans for Future Dormitory 
and Dining Facilities, which had been convened to deal with planned 
growth in enrollment, recommended the proposed site, the proposed 
budget (not to exceed $3,100,000), and a proposed Senior Center Commit- 
tee, which included then-Associate Professor William B. Whiteside (now 
Frank Munsey Professor of History) and Moulton Union Director Dono- 
van D. Lancaster '27. Earlier that year Hugh Stubbins had appeared before 
the Trustees with a model of the proposed facility. 

The plan for the building went much further than providing housing and 
affording class solidarity for the seniors. Reflecting the milieu of Oxford, 
whose colleges afford easy faculty-student interaction, and the new less 
formal educational style in this country, the Senior Center program was 
academic as well as social. The director and his family had living quarters in 
what is now Chamberlain Hall, where there were also suites for visiting 
scholars. The other flanking building, Wentworth Hall, provided dining 
facilities and a large lounge for lectures, recitals, exhibitions, and parties. 
This building was named for Walter V. Wentworth, class of 1 886, Overseer 
from 1929 to 1958 and longtime chairman of the Committee on Buildings 
and Grounds. 3 The lounge is now a memorial to Athern P. Daggett '25, 
William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Constitutional and International 
Law and Government and acting president in 1967-1968. 

The program of seminars, designed specifically to involve seniors in 
disciplines outside their majors, also provided faculty members with the 
opportunity to develop topics of particular interest to themselves. For 



i68 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




everyone, including succeeding college generations, the Senior Center pro- 
vided the mechanism for the loosening of what was still a rather formal 
style of college education. The new seminars, with no formal prerequisites, 
were limited to fifteen students. Each senior was to take two outside his 
major field on a pass/fail/distinction basis. Among the twelve seminars 
offered in the first year were "The Supreme Court and the First Freedom," 
"Historical Geography," and "The Person and the Mind-Body Problem." 
From 1964 until 1971 the program was directed by William B. Whiteside. 
He was succeeded by Professor of Mathematics James E. Ward III, who 
was director for five years; the final director was Associate Professor of 
Romance Languages Gabriel J. Brogyanyi, who died in 1986. During these 
fifteen years there were far-reaching changes in the College, including a 
larger enrollment, a greater faculty-student ratio, an open curriculum, and 
the admission of women students. By 1978 it was apparent that, although 
the 1960s experiment had been abundantly successful and had brought 
great change to the form of education and the quality of campus life, it was 



THE PERIMETER 1 69 



no longer desirable to restrict the program to seniors. Much of the Senior 
Center program was formally integrated into the general college curricu- 
lum at this time. In 1980 the tower was renamed to honor James Stacy 
Coles, Bowdoin's ninth president; Chamberlain Hall had become the 
admissions office in 1977. 

For the ten years before the Bowdoin commission, Hugh Stubbins had 
been increasingly involved in college and school projects. He also designed 
such large-scale ventures as Boston's State Street Bank and New York's 
Citicorp Center. In Maine, in addition to the Senior Center at Bowdoin, he 
designed the Morrell Gymnasium, the Coles house in Harpswell, and the 
Union Mutual building in Portland. 

Stubbins is unusually attuned to the individual requirements of his proj- 
ects. Coles Tower stands out in its adaptation to the site and to the rest of 
Bowdoin architecture. Although practical considerations dictated the 
choice of site, the Architectural Record assigned it extraordinary significance: 

The tower thus becomes a symbolic structure, standing aside from the campus and 
yet overlooking it, which would seem to be an exact statement of its purpose and 
basic relationship. 4 

A sixteen-story tower would have been a major presence anywhere in the 
state of Maine, but clearly Stubbins wanted to integrate the Senior Center 
with its setting. Although the three-part complex is raised on a trapezoidal 
podium, the surrounding trees make a handsome transition to the scale of 
the neighboring buildings. The building materials are consistent with the 
rest of the campus, but the building is tied to its site in a subtler way by its 
general sculptural quality. 

The sides of the square tower are not flat. Each one rounds out slightly, 
and the vertical brick piers — one wide and two narrow — project boldly 
from the window strips. As the piers touch the ground they splay out, 
forming an unusually springy and cathedral-like base. 

The wider horizontal divisions are active, wedge-shaped forms, and the 
crowning member extends enough to ensure a strong shadow. The light- 
colored "lintel" idea is repeated on the two-story adjoining buildings, 
Chamberlain and Wentworth Halls; projecting alcoves in Went worth, the 
dining hall, enliven the outside wall. 

The Coles Tower complex is both subtle and theatrical. It is well worth 
taking the elevator to the sixteenth floor to see the magnificent view, espe- 
cially to look down on the quadrangle. On the ground, the visual connec- 
tion with Massachusetts Hall is particularly apparent from the path back to 
College Street. 



170 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




- - 



THE PERIMETER 171 



Alp he us Spring Packard I 
Gateway 

1940 FELIX ARNOLD BURTON '07 

The Bowdoin College gateways mark paths and entrance points, many of 
which have existed since the beginning of the nineteenth century. In several 
instances, however, buildings near the gates have been added or removed, 
changing the view. The approach to the campus through the Alpheus 
Spring Packard Gateway has been changed by the tunnel of maples, elms, 
and oaks that leads to Massachusetts Hall. 

Besides framing a view, a gateway usually marks, in a ceremonial fashion, 
a particular site. In 1940, two of the five living members of the Class of 1 876 
gave this gate, dedicated to their teacher and marking his entrance to the 
campus from his house (the Little-Mitchell House) just across College 
Street. 1 One of the donors was Charles G. Wheeler, who drew the maps and 
illustrations for the 1878 History oj "Brunswick, Topsham, andHarpswell, Maine, 
compiled by his uncles. The other was Arthur T. Parker, a manufacturer 
from Massachusetts who had been class agent since 1920 and permanent 
secretary of his class since 1906. 

This was the last of four college gate projects designed by Felix Arnold 
Burton '07. The Packard Gateway is different from the Warren Eastman 
Robinson Gate in the use of bronze tablets, in less elaborate finials, and in 
the restraint of the iron work. 



172 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER 173 



Baxter House 

10 College Street 

1901 CHAPMAN AND FRAZER 

The following notice appeared in the Brunswick Telegraph on May 15, 1901: 

The fine new residence which H. C. Baxter is building on College Street is almost 
an exact duplicate in exterior and interior to the Delta Kappa Epsilon Chapter 
house. It was designed by the same architects, Frazer and Chapman of Boston, and 
is being built by the same contractors, Smith and Rumery of Portland. 

Hartley Cone Baxter, a Bowdoin graduate of 1878, was a well-known 
member of a well-known Maine family. His father, James Phinney Baxter, 
an early and inventive food processor, was six times mayor of Portland and 
a Bowdoin Overseer from 1894 to 1921. Hartley Cone Baxter's half-bro- 
ther, Percival P. Baxter, class of 1 898, was a lawyer, a legislator, governor of 
Maine, and the donor of Baxter State Park. Hartley's son, John Lincoln 
Baxter '16, was an Overseer from 1941 to 1954 and a Trustee from 1954 to 
1972; his grandson, Richard Allen Morrell '50, became an Overseer in 1979. 

Hartley brought part of the food processing business to Brunswick in 
1888 and thirteen years later had this house built. Since Baxter was a mem- 
ber of Delta Kappa Epsilon, he may well have helped choose the chapter 
house architects. Certainly he liked the work of Chapman and Frazer. 

On the exterior the two buildings are similar in plan and mass. The 
architects gave Baxter a monumental uninterrupted semi-circular two-story 
portico. A balcony projects over the main entrance, and the hipped roof is 
enlivened by a center Palladianesque dormer. The exterior colors were once 
richer, as were those of the Delta Kappa Epsilon house. 

Hartley Baxter died in 1939, and his wife, Mary, died in 1950. The house 
was bought in 195 1 by the Sigma Nu fraternity. The members of Sigma Nu 
had just sold their former house, which they had purchased from Mrs. 
George Taylor Files in 1 921, to Alpha Rho Upsilon. Sigma Nu remained in 
Baxter House until the fraternity disbanded in 1970. The property was 
bought by the College in 1971 and is now a student residence. 



174 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 





The 1903 Zeta Psi House 



THE PERIMETER I 75 



Zeta Psi House 

14 College Street 

1928-1929 JOHN P. THOMAS 

In June 1927 a committee was formed to raise money to build the present 
Zeta Psi chapter house. The committee's first move was to purchase a lot 
behind the original house. 

The house torn down to make way for this new building was an inventive 
structure the fraternity had built in 1903. The Portland Evening Express in 
September of that year described it as: "of a shinglesque pattern, low, 
rambling, quaint, and picturesque. The shingles are stained bronze green 
and the trimmings are white." 1 

One committee member, Sir Harry Oakes, Bart., class of 1896, gave 
$40,000 toward the construction of the new house, which covered slightly 
over one-half the total expenses. Sir Harry had been born in Sangerville, 
Maine, and was a successful entrepreneur in the United States, New Zea- 
land, and Canada. In 1939, when he was made a baronet by George VI, he 
was a Bowdoin Overseer and listed his residences as London; Niagara Falls, 
Ontario; and Nassau, the Bahamas. 

The new chapter house followed the lead of Alpha Delta Phi and took a 
Georgian Revival form. The architect, John P. Thomas of Portland, was 
responsible for the design of the former Canal Bank Block (1930) on Mid- 
dle Street in Portland as well as several residences. For Zeta Psi, Thomas 
worked out a design much more formal than Burton's Alpha Delta Phi 
house. The full three-story brick elevation is articulated by stringcourses 
separating the first or basement story from the upper two stories, and 
another molding defines the solid roof balustrade. The slightly projecting 
entrance pavilion is crowned with a swag-decorated pediment; below, on 
the second-floor window, is a broken scroll pediment and urn; framing the 
entranceway is a columned porch. It is the use of stone on the porch, the 
window above, and the keystones and stringcourses which gives this struc- 
ture its solid formality. It has the least domestic appearance of all the 
chapter houses. 



1 76 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 77 



Pickard Field 

1927 ROBERT WASHBURN BEAL 

Pickard Field House 

1936 JOHN CALVIN STEVENS 

William Farley Field House 

1987 SASAKI ASSOCIATES, INC. 

It is a pleasant walk down Coffin Street to Pickard Field, which was laid out 
in 1927, the year Curtis Pool was opened and the Moulton Union was under 
construction. President Sills enunciated the need for new athletic facilities 
in his Report of the President of 1925 1926: "We are now definitely launched 
on a programme of athletics for all, and it is a question whether Whittier 
Field and the Delta furnish adequate facilities." 

The following year a gift of over sixty acres was received from Frederick 
W. Pickard, class of 1894, an Overseer and soon to become a Trustee. 
Pickard had been born in Portland and had begun there his association with 
the explosives business, which took him to the E. I. du Pont Company in 
Wilmington, Delaware. 

Robert Washburn Beal, a Boston landscape architect, drew a plan for 
developing the area and submitted a detailed written scheme and estimate 
of costs. Included in Beal's plan were fields for polo, lacrosse, baseball, 
soccer, and football; a three-hole golf course; twenty-one tennis courts; 
space for volleyball and handball; areas for track and field events; and a field 
house. For these facilities his estimate of cost was $75,000. 

In the issue of February 16, 1927, the Orient outlined the plans and 
concluded: "It will take a great number of years to complete it, and the time 
will depend largely on some generous alumnus or someone who is inter- 
ested in some particular part of the field." 

Over the next nine years the fields were developed. In 1936 work began 
on the field house, another Pickard gift, this time from both Mr. and Mrs. 
Frederick Pickard. Stevens and Stevens, as the firm was now called, of 
Portland, were chosen to design the new structure. Robert Washburn Beal 
may have gone out of business; he is not listed in the Boston directory for 
that year. 

John Calvin Stevens had designed the Psi Upsilon chapter house in 1900, 
and his son John Howard did extensive remodeling work on the Beta Theta 



178 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Pi house in 1927. Although John Calvin Stevens had done pioneer work in 
the Shingle Style, after 1900 he turned to the revival styles of the Colonial 
and Federal periods to design many domestic, commercial, and institu- 
tional structures in dozens of Maine communities. 

In the Maine Historical Society, among the papers of John Calvin 
Stevens and the Stevens firm, is an informal study initialled J. H. S. (John 
Howard Stevens) for an entrance gateway to Pickard Field House. It reads: 
"For the Class of 191 2" and shows brick piers surmounted by a polar bear 
rampant holding a shield. This project was never carried out. Instead, for 
their twenty-fifth reunion, the Class of 191 2 donated the polar bear statue 
outside Sargent Gymnasium. Its pedestal and installation were the work of 
the Stevens firm. The closest prototype for this field house may be a bar- 
racks or a stable. The horizontal stretch of the Pickard Field House is 
emphasized by the roof line, the low, many-windowed single story, and the 
broad spread of the central gable. 

With the addition of the William Farley Field House in 1987, the uneasy 
horizontal stretch of the one-story Pickard Field House is resolved in the 
new context provided by the tripartite building complex. Construction of 
the building began in 1985 after the announcement of a gift from William 
Farley '64. Sasaki Associates, Inc., of Watertown, Massachusetts, designers 
of numerous Maine complexes, were retained as architects and landscape 
architects, and H. P. Cummings Construction Company was the general 
contractor. 

The large field house, which contains an indoor track, and the smaller 
pool house abutting Pickard Field House have similar hipped roofs and are 
connected by a fiat-roofed central area for lockers, equipment, and a 
training room. The hipped roofs accommodate interior height 
requirements while allowing the exterior walls to stay fairly low, twenty-six 
feet. The roofs restrain the bulk of the buildings, keeping them in manage- 
able proportions, and their dark color against the translucent gray panels of 
the walls reinforces the illusion of domestic scale. 

The Pickard Field House has a new setting: from Coffin Street it is now a 
relatively small visual introduction to a progression of larger forms. From 
the Harpswell Street entrance, Pickard and the new pool area provide an 
asymmetrical balance to the new field house. 

Part of Pickard Field's acreage is given to other projects. In the summer 
of 1930, the Observatory was moved from its original site close to the 
swimming pool to the southeast corner of Pickard Field. At the same time 
temporary provision was made for astronomy in the upper reaches of 
Searles Science Building. 

When the Observatory was built, five years after the first Sargent 
Gymnasium (now the Heating Plant), it was the second building in the area 



THE PERIMETER 



J 79 




behind the quadrangle. The principal benefactor of the new observatory 
was John J. Taylor of Fairbury, Illinois, a native of Brunswick. 

The design is the work of Samuel B. Dunning, called Brunswick's first 
architect by John V. Goff. 1 Dunning designed dwellings and business 
blocks, most often of frame and clapboard. Just after completing the Bow- 
doin Observatory, he undertook the design and building of the huge Cabot 
Mill, still an important landmark in Brunswick. 

In 1973 the Harpswell Apartments (and those on Pine Street) were built 
according to the designs of Design Five Maine, Incorporated, of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, with construction under the supervision of Wright- 
Pierce of Topsham, Maine. This wooden structure is found on the eastern 
side of the area. 



l8o THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 





The ipoj Alpha Kappa 
Sigma House 



THE PERIMETER 



Alpha Kappa Sigma House 

38 Harps well Street 
1905 

The Kappa Sigma fraternity, founded in 1869 at the University of Virginia, 
was organized at Bowdoin College in 1895. By 1905 the chapter members 
were able to build a house. Old photographs show it to have been Colonial 
Revival in style with an ample front porch. 1 The living and dining rooms 
were "furnished in Mission style," according to E. A. Duddy '07, writing 
in 1905. 2 Donovan D. Lancaster, class of 1927, director of the Moulton 
Union and the Centralized Dining Service emeritus, and Alpha Kappa 
Sigma member and advisor, wrote in a fraternity reminiscence that the 
original exterior color was yellow. According to him, a 1930 renovation 
produced: "instead of a drab yellow structure, ... an impressive Southern 
Colonial glistening white mansion with graceful white columns." Lancas- 
ter also wrote that the enlargement and interior changes as well as the 
impressive new facade put the chapter in a better position to compete for 
pledges. 3 

Because of the Depression, the fraternity could not afford to hire an 
architect. According to Don Lancaster, Burton M. Clough '00 and Leon E. 
Jones '13 were in charge of the remodelling. They hired a local builder 
whose name has not come to light. 

The two-story portico is carefully scaled to the house in width and 
height; the gabled front section was added at the same time. The slender 
square columns echo the plane of the facade. The broad elliptically arched 
doorway surmounted by a tripartite window organizes the facade, which is 
crowned by a dormer arrangement above. The sunporch was more than 
doubled in length in 195 3. In October 1965 the chapter withdrew from the 
national fraternity and became Alpha Kappa Sigma. 



I 82 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 






Hubbard Grandstand, 
ca. 1904 



THE PERIMETER I 83 



Whittier Yield 

1896 

Hubbard Grandstand 

1904 HENRY VAUGHAN 

Class of 19 03 Gateway 

1928 HARRY S. COOMBS '01 

Hazardous football-playing conditions of the early 1890s are described in a 
brochure entitled The Proposed Athletic Field at Bowdoin College: "The foot- 
ball field on the delta is ten yards too short, and the pine trunks and roots, at 
the east end of the field, add an unnecessary element of danger to the 
game." 1 

Readers of the brochure were solicited to make donations for clearing, 
making a quarter-mile track and a 220-yard straightaway, preparing 
baseball and football areas, fencing, and building a grandstand with 
dressing rooms for players. Although the College owned most of the six 
acres, some had to be acquired from the Robert Bowker heirs. Because the 
field area was fiat and sandy, it did not require elaborate work. The engi- 
neering was done by John Emerson Burbank, an 1896 graduate and a 
physics instructor at Bowdoin from 1896 to 1900. The contractor was 
William Muir, Jr., of Brunswick. 

Although Bowdoin had been playing intercollegiate baseball for twenty 
years, the first intercollegiate football game, with Tufts, had taken place as 
recently as 1889; the first game with Colby was in 1892, and with the 
University of Maine in 1893. Across the country at this time, competitive 
sports had developed to the point where grandstands and stadiums were 
needed for the spectators. The Harvard Stadium, designed by McKim, 
Mead and White and at the time the world's largest reinforced concrete 
structure, went up between 1899 and 1903; the Yale Bowl followed in 19 14. 

When Bowdoin's new field was completed, the wooden grandstand was 
moved over from the Delta, and some time before 1902 the field was named 
for the director of athletics and later college physician, Frank Nathaniel 
Whittier, class of 1885. Dr. Whittier, who had married a daughter of the 
Skolfield family, lived in the Park Row double house now owned by the 
Pejepscot Historical Society. 

In 1902 General Thomas H. Hubbard, class of 1857, announced his gift 



184 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



of a grandstand equipped with locker rooms and showers. Hubbard Hall 
was barely finished when Henry Vaughan, its architect, undertook this new 
project for General Hubbard, with C. L. Fellows and Company of Concord, 
New Hampshire, as contractors. 

This is probably the only grandstand in Henry Vaughan's oeuvre. Here, 
instead of the Gothic ideas he used in Searles Science Building and 
Hubbard Hall, he turned to something more pastoral, related to large 
summer cottages and to Stevens's Shingle Style, although the grandstand is 
made of stone and brick. The similarity derives from the generous over- 
hang of the deep, hipped roof, originally green slate, and from the informal- 
ity of the fieldstone base (now mostly obscured by additional bleachers). 
The upper red brick area originally had twelve openings, now blocked in, 
which contributed to a festive airiness. Before seating was added in front 
and to the sides, and before the addition to the roof, the grandstand 
appeared taller. 

At the dedication, in May 1904, General Hubbard began: 

Today we give this structure to Bowdoin College and dedicate it to the use of 
athletes and the lovers of athletics. Let us at the same time dedicate it to the 
declaration, 'Fair play, and may the best man win.' 2 

These words are carved in the front of the grandstand in the granite plinth 
that rests on the fieldstone base. 

To celebrate its twenty-fifth reunion, the Class of 1903 gave to the Col- 
lege the gateway to Whittier Field and the Hubbard Grandstand. President 
Sills had wanted a gateway here, according to the Johnson family letters 
exchanged during the planning of the W. E. Robinson Gateway. 3 Felix 
Arnold Burton '07 had already designed one and given a watercolor ren- 
dering of it and one of another gate to the Museum of Art in 191 5. 4 Henry 
Johnson, the museum director, probably encouraged Burton, his young 
friend, hoping suitable donors would come forward. 

The Class of 1903, however, retained Harry S. Coombs '01 of Lewiston. 
Coombs provided the class with a fine rendering of the proposed gate, 
which was used as the twenty-fifth reunion letterhead. 5 This was an effec- 
tive choice, for the class raised more than the cost of the gate. Red brick, 
cast stone, and ironwork are the ingredients in this largest and most elabo- 
rate of Bowdoin's gateways. 

The entrance is a demi-ellipse, with the brick walls curving out from the 
two pairs of posts. Provision has been made for ticket sellers, and there are 
five entrances. The large size is well adapted to the crush of spectators 
entering and leaving a fall football game. The formality of the Georgian 
forms relates to the other gateways rather than to the grandstand within, 
but the design organizes the landscape of flat terrain and towering pine 
trees. 



THE PERIMETER 



I8 5 




Pine Grove Cemetery 
Pine Street Apartments 

1973 DESIGN FIVE MAINE 

In 1820 Bowdoin College sold the town of Brunswick two acres of land in 
the eastern part of the Delta for a new burying ground. The cemetery was 
laid out in 1 8 2 5 , with the western strip, eighteen rods long and one and one- 
half rods wide, reserved for the use of the College. Here are the graves of 
many Bowdoin people, beginning with the first president, Joseph McKeen, 
whose tomb, in white and Egyptian marble, bears a lengthy Latin inscrip- 
tion. McKeen's tomb was moved here when the cemetery was established, 
as was that of President Jesse Appleton directly behind. 1 

This row contains the graves of Alpheus Spring Packard, President 
Joshua L. Chamberlain, William Smyth, President William DeWitt Hyde, 



I 86 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 87 



Parker Cleaveland, Thomas Upham, Samuel Newman, Stephen Jewett 
Young, Leslie Lee, and Franklin Clement Robinson. Near Bath Street and 
facing it is the large monument of Robert P. Dunlap, governor of Maine and 
United States representative. His marble bust by the Portland sculptor 
Franklin Simmons rests on a tall granite base. 

There are many varieties of gravestones of different materials, lettered 
and shaped according to the taste of the age into obelisks, urns, Gothic 
forms, and neoclassical forms, simple and ornate. Many family plots are 
fenced in iron or granite. 

Near both the cemetery and Whittier Field are the Pine Street 
Apartments. In response to the decision to enlarge the number of students 
to 1,250 in 1973, the College acquired and built new housing. Under- 
graduate housing had come to include former family dwellings and 
apartments. Less formal than dormitories and often equipped with kitch- 
ens, the new quarters provided flexible alternative housing. 

Copeland House, at 88 Federal Street, had been the residence of Manton 
Copeland, who taught biology from 1908 to 1947 and was Josiah Little 
Professor of Natural Science Emeritus when he died in 1971. Both this 
house and the Winfield Smith house, at 5 9 Harpswell Street, were acquired 
in 1972. Smith, class of 1907, had been born and raised in the house, which 
was built on the site of the present Psi Upsilon chapter house and later 
moved. Both the Mayflower Apartments on Belmont Street and the Bruns- 
wick Apartments on Maine Street were acquired in 1973, the year the Pine 
Street and Harpswell Apartments were completed. 

The Pine Street Apartments, near Whittier Field and the Pine Grove 
Cemetery, and the Harpswell Apartments, adjacent to Pickard Field, were 
each designed for forty-eight students, four in each of twelve apartments. 
Design Five Maine, Incorporated, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the 
architect, and Wright, Pierce and Whitmore of Topsham was the local 
architect, supervising the work of the Great Eastern Building Company of 
Cambridge. The wooden design exploits the notion of the shed roof to give 
form to an otherwise simple scheme. The yawning clerestories alternate 
with shed dormers to give an impression of height among the surrounding 
pines. 

Destruction of the pines was objected to when the projects were 
announced, but few trees were actually cut down. Those became boards to 
build the gazebo on the Brunswick Mall, a gift from the College to the 
town. 



I 88 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 




THE PERIMETER I 89 



8 j Federal Street 



i860 



Marshall Per ley Cram 
Alumni House 



83 Federal Street 
1857 



When Captain Francis C. Jordan built "85 Federal Street" between 75 and 
79 Federal Street, the neighbors may well have gasped, for it was of a scale 
quite unlike those of the surrounding houses. The informal zoning of 
Federal Street when it was laid out in 1805 aimed at a two-story elevation 
and a common setback. Residents were concerned about new houses being 
too small rather than too large. 

In the area from Bath Street to the railroad cut, the west side of Federal 
Street had eight houses by 1845, while the east side had only four. The 
Reverend Benjamin Titcomb's at number 63 (now the Stowe House) and 
Parker Cleaveland's at number 75 (now owned by Professor and Mrs. Wil- 
liam Shipman) were both built in 1806. David Stanwood moved an eigh- 
teenth-century house from Maine Street near Mere Brook to number 79 in 
1 82 1, and Parker Cleaveland's son John built the brick dwelling at number 
71 in 1845. 

According to William Shipman, Captain Francis C. Jordan purchased his 
lot for $500 in 1859 fr° m the heirs of David Dunlap (David's brother 
Robert owned the land on the west side of the street), and Jordan's new 
house, completed in i860, was numbered 77. l 

Jordan, a shipmaster born in 1820, had already built one house on Fed- 
eral Street, at number 70. Later he was to buy another, at number 78, as an 
investment, and still another opposite Bank Street for his own dwelling. By 
1887 the town directory lists him as owning a corn cannery. He developed 
Pearl Street, later renamed Jordan Avenue, for his business. 

It is not yet known whether Jordan had an architect; his housewright was 
James R. Barker. Perhaps Barker had built the Benjamin Greene (now Delta 
Upsilon) and H. C. Martin (now Burnett) houses as well. From the Bruns- 
wick Telegraph of December 6, 1861: 



190 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



and a word of this new house. Mr. James Barker has built it, and his work which 
will bear the closest scrutiny, speaks for itself . . . The General style of the house is 
liked by most people, but we should prefer, for ourselves, something a little more 
odd or quaint. 

The original impact of the house is almost preserved today, for the 
cupola, roof balustrade, and smaller portico balustrade are intact. These 
important features are missing from the architecturally similar Burnett 
House and Delta Sigma fraternity house. Originally this structure was not 
white, and there were probably three or four colors where today there are 
only two. When the house was repainted in 1885 the Brunswick Telegraph of 
May 5 offered the opinion that "the red of the window sashes should be a 
shade or two darker." 

On the other hand, the present site at 8 5 Federal Street on the corner of 
the Bath Road is more advantageous to the untroubled authority of this 
architecture. Built in the classic symmetrical mode of the previous one 
hundred years and using classical elements — corner pilasters, porch col- 
umns, matched board siding, roof balustrade — the scale has been inflated 
to reflect Renaissance palazzi. The cupola provides height, and the tall 
windows are capped by projecting cornices on brackets. The bracketed 
roofline is a translation of stone Italian forms into wood for the Brunswick 
client. 

The house was moved from number 77 in 1874 by the son-in-law of 
Parker Cleaveland, Peleg Chandler, when he and his family "modernized" 
the old family home at 75 Federal in order to spend summers in Brunswick. 
Chandler wanted more garden and less shade, so he acquired the property 
next door and moved the house. 

Bowdoin's first president's house, roughly on the site of Searles Science 
Building, had burned in 1838. Leonard Woods, president from 1839 to 
1866, entertained a design for a new president's house from Gervase 
Wheeler before the architect fell from favor but was content to live in 
bachelor quarters during his tenure. The College bought the house at num- 
ber 77 from Captain Jordan in 1867 for Samuel Harris, who succeeded 
Woods as president. President Chamberlain, who succeeded Harris in 1871, 
preferred to live in his own house, so the College leased it until Chandler 
bought and moved it. The College repurchased the house in 1890, and 
President and Mrs. Hyde were allowed to rent it for $360 a year. 

The house at 8 5 Federal Street served as the President's House for the 
next ninety-two years; during that time it underwent the usual improve- 
ments in plumbing and heating. As the College grew, so did the need for 
public space. In 1925 Felix Arnold Burton '07 designed the first-floor 
ballroom addition, modeled after Gadsby's Tavern, an eighteenth-century 



THE PERIMETER 



9 1 




building in Alexandria, Virginia. Eighty-five Federal Street now houses the 
offices of the development staff. 

Next door at the Marshall Perley Cram Alumni House are more offices in 
addition to the public rooms on the lower floor. This former dwelling was 
built at the same time as 85 Federal Street, but doubtless caused little 
comment, for it was designed in a thoroughly conservative style. Although 
the rooms are high posted, the exterior does not proclaim this new aesthetic 
as does that of its next door neighbor. Cram Alumni House seems to be, 
rather, a fattened version of a typical Greek Revival house onto which have 
grown a few Italianate features like the entrance portico. 

At the time of its construction in 1859 the local critic at the Brunswick 
Telegraph had this to say on September 9: "There can be no question Mr. 
Cram's house is as thoroughly constructed as any one ever built in this 
town, and the only fault we have to find with it, is its too great exterior 
plainness." 



I92 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Marshall Cram was a Bowdoin Overseer from i860 to 1873 and was a 
merchant and state legislator. He, like Francis Jordan, entrusted the con- 
struction of his house to James R. Barker. The house remained in the Cram 
family and was the lifelong home of Cram's grandson, Marshall Perley 
Cram '04, who became Josiah Little Professor of Natural Science. When 
Professor Cram died in 1933, the house was given to the College. It was not 
until 1962 that it was reworked as the Alumni House, and in 1975 it was 
formally named for the donor. 



ENDNOTES 



THE FIRST WALK 

The Quadrangle 
i. Governing Boards' minutes are arranged by date in boxes in Special 
Collections (hereafter called Sp. Coll.), Hawthorne-Longfellow Library. 
See Ernst C. Helmreich, Keligion at Bowdoin College: A History (Bruns- 
wick: Bowdoin College, i98i),p. 200, for an excellent discussion of how 
to find college documents. 

2. George Thomas Little, "Historical Sketch," General Catalogue of Bowdoin 
College, 1794-1894 (Brunswick: Bowdoin College, 1894), p. ixxxviii. 

3. Nehemiah Cleaveland and Alpheus S. Packard, History of Bowdoin College 
with Biographical Sketches of its Graduates from 1806 to 18/9, Inclusive (Bos- 
ton: James Ripley Osgood & Company, 1882), p. 89. 

4. Louis C. Hatch, The History of Bowdoin College (Portland, Maine: Loring, 
Short, and Harmon, 1927), p. 49. 

5. Hatch, p. 47. Also Cleaveland and Packard, pp. 14 16. 

6. R. H. Gardiner to C. S. Daveis, Aug. 11, 1858. Sp. Coll., Charles S. 
Daveis Papers: Correspondence 1 840-1 864. 

Massachusetts Hall 
1 . Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Samuel P. Benson, and John D. Lincoln, 
Address Made at the Opening of the Cleaveland Cabinet (Boston: James R. 
Osgood, 1873). 

Maine Hall 

1 . Report of the fire, Portland Gazette, March 9, 1822. Clipping in Sp. Coll., 
William Allen Papers. Advertisement, Portland Gazette, Mar. 12, 1822. 
Draft copy in Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. Papers. 

2. Sp. Coll., Boards Votes, March 27, 1822. Also cited in Cleaveland and 
Packard, p. 92. 

3. E. Daveis to C. S. Daveis, Feb. 17, 1836, Sp. Coll., Charles S. Daveis 
Papers: Correspondence 1 808-1 840. Also quoted in Hatch, p. 406. 
There is also a joint letter from E. P. Weston and N. A. Prince to a 
former teacher describing the second fire in Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Maine. 

Winthrop Hall 

1. H. W. Longfellow to E. Longfellow, Oct. 12, 1823, in vol. 1 (18 14-1836) 
of H. Andrew, ed., The Tetters of Henry Wadsworth Tongfellow (Cam- 
bridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1966), pp. 51-52. 

2. H. W. Longfellow to A. Longfellow, Oct. 26, 1823, Letters, pp. 5 5-56. 

Appleton Hall 

1. Wm. Allen to R. Williams, Feb. 10, 1825, Sp. Coll., Wm. Allen Papers. 

2. Wm. Allen to R. Williams, Jan. 5, 1827, Sp. Coll., Wm. Allen Papers. 

3. Reports of Visiting Committees, Bowdoin College, 18 34-1 8 39, unpaged, 
Office of the Treasurer. 



194 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



4. Sept. 6, 1808, Sp. Coll., Boards Votes, and Cleaveland and Packard, p. 
27. Packard had seen the plan but supposed it had been burned with the 
treasurer's office. 

5. Sp. Coll., Boards Votes, 1841. 

6. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Appleton. 

The Chapel 

1. L. Woods to C. S. Daveis, March 9, 1844, Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Chapel. 

2. R. Upjohn to L. Woods, Apr. 15, 1844, Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Chapel. 

3. T. C. Upham to L. Woods, Aug. 1, 1846, Sp. Coll., Leonard Woods 
Papers: Correspondence, Aug. -Dec. 1846. Quoted in Helmreich, pp. 
74-75- 

4. Cleaveland and Packard, p. 21. Helmreich, p. 181, note 54. 

5. Sp. Coll., C. S. Daveis Papers: Correspondence, 1840 1864. 

6. J. McKeen to R. Gardiner, Feb. 9, 1844. Sp. Coll., R. H. Gardiner. 
Joseph McKeen's copybook, also in Sp. Coll., contains copies of his 
letters to Gardiner and others, 1 837-1 863. 

7. G. Wheeler to L. Woods, Sept. 29, 1847. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Chapel: 
Box 1. 

8. William H. Pierson, Jr., "Richard Upjohn, Leonard Woods, and the 
Bowdoin Chapel Conspiracy," talk, October 29, 198 1. 

9. W J. Hoppin to L. Woods quoted in Pierson, p. 28. 

Seth Adams Hall 

1. P. A. Chadbourne to L. Woods, undated, Sp. Coll., Leonard Woods 
Papers: Correspondence, 1859— 1874. 

2. Sp. Coll., Medical School Miscellaneous Papers, box 2, folder 4. 

3. Quoted in Laboratory of Chemistry: History of Chemistry at bowdoin, 
Description of the building, Program of Dedication, June 6, 1952. 

Memorial Hall 

1. Sp. Coll., Bowdoin College Archives, Governing Boards Votes, Aug. 1, 
1866, and Oct. 5, 1867. 

2. Sp. Coll., Bowdoin College Records, History, Correspondence over 
Construction of Memorial Hall. 

3. S. D. Backus to N. Cleaveland, Sp. Coll., Bowdoin College Records, 
History, Correspondence over Construction of Memorial Hall. 

4. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Memorial Hall. 

5 . The Maine Historic Preservation Commission files on Levi Newcomb 
contain an advertisement inserted by Bowdoin College in the Daily East- 
ern Argus for Feb. 26, 1869, "to Carpenters ... for erecting and 
roofing . . . superstructure." By July 1870 only the walls and the roof 
were done. 

6. Orient, May 10, 1876, "Patriotism vs. Pine Boards." 



ENDNOTES I95 



7. The Preston plan, dated Nov. 27, 1880, is in the Boston Public Library. 
My copy came from Earle Shettleworth at the Maine Historic Preserva- 
tion Commission. 

8. Orient, Mar. 30, 1881, p. 204. 

9. Andrew Jackson Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (New 
York: D. Appleton and Co., 1850; Dover Publications, 1969). 

to. Orient, Feb. 17, 1954, p. 1. 

Mary Frances Searles Science Building 

1. T. H. Hubbard to Wm. D. Hyde, June 21, 1892, Sp. Coll., Bowdoin 
College Archives, Governing Boards Votes. Also quoted in Report of the 
President, 1893. 

2. Woodbury and Leighton to H. Vaughan, Mar. 29, 1893, and Apr. 15, 
1893. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Searles. 

3. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Searles. 

4. H. Vaughan to S. J. Young, Apr. 15, 1893, Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Searles. 

5 . Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Early Victorian Architecture in Britain, vol. 1 
(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954), p. 15. 

Walker Art Building 

1. H. J. Johnson to C. E. Norton, 1885, Sp. Coll., Henry Johnson Papers: 
Correspondence, Nov.-Dec. 1885. Also a draft of another letter by 
Johnson to Norton, Nov. 24, 1885. 

2. W. Northend to H. Johnson, July 14, 1891. Sp. Coll., Henry Johnson 
Papers: Correspondence, July-Sept. 1891. 

3. G. Little to W. Northend, Apr. 7, 1891. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Correspon- 
dence, Walker Art Building. 

4. H. S. Walker to C. F. McKim, July 6, 1891, marked "copy" by H. S. 
Walker. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Correspondence, Walker Art Building. 

5. C. F. McKim to H. S. Walker, August 10, 1891. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Corre- 
spondence, Walker Art Building. 

6. G. T. Little to H. S. Walker, Aug. 1891. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Correspon- 
dence, Walker Art Building. 

7. The report of the director of the museum was and still is published as 
part of the annual Report of the President. 

8. An Address Delivered at Bowdoin College upon the Opening of the Walker Art 
Building (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1894), p. 4. 

Hubbard Hall 

1. As had Thomas Hamlin Hubbard; William Northend, who had been 
instrumental in securing the gift of the Walker Art Building; George 
Thomas Little, class of 1 8 77 and librarian from 1 8 8 3 to 1 9 1 5 ; and Little's 
classmate Robert E. Peary, among others. 

2. T.H. Hubbard to G. T Little, May 25, 1901. Sp. Coll., Thomas Hamlin 
Hubbard Correspondence, Gray Business Box. 



196 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



3. T. H. Hubbard to W. D. Hyde, Apr. 1900. Sp. Coll., Thomas Hamlin 
Hubbard Papers. Sentiments paraphrased in W. D. Hyde to W. L. Put- 
nam, May 7, 1900. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. A-H. 

4. H. Vaughan to G. T. Little, Nov. 1, 1901. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. A-H, 
Vaughan to Little Letters, 1900 19 14. 

5. William DeWitt Hyde, Report of the President, 1 900-1 901, p. 30. 

Hyde Hall 

1. W. J. Curtis to F. Payson, Jan. 30, 1917. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. A-H. 

2. "Architecture of American Colleges," Dec. 1 909-May 1 9 1 2. Bowdoin is 
mentioned (with Brown, Trinity, and Wesleyan) in part 7, Feb. 191 1, pp. 
144—166. 

Harvey Dow Gibson Hall of Music 
1. W. J. Curtis to F. C. Payson, Jan. 30, 191 7. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. A-H. 

Coleman Hall 

1 . Mr. Pickard's grandfather, Samuel Pickard, had been an Overseer in the 
1860s; his father, Charles Weston Pickard, class of 1857, was also an 
Overseer, and three uncles were graduates. A fourth uncle received an 
honorary degree the year of Frederick's graduation. The fourth gener- 
ation was represented by their son, John Coleman Pickard '22, also a 
generous benefactor of the College, who was a member of the Gov- 
erning Boards from 1952 until his death in 1970. 

2. Portland Press Herald [Edgar Comee], "Bowdoin Deserves the Best in 
Architectural Planning," Sept. 21, 1957. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Library 

1. Report, Nov. 4, 1961. Sp. Coll., Minutes of the Ad Hoc Library Com- 
mittee. The ad hoc committee was authorized on Jan. 30, i960, and its 
papers are in Sp. Coll., Bowdoin College Library Papers, 1 873-1967. 
MetcalPs comments are in a July i960 letter to John Faron in that file. 

2. "Blended Simplicity for Bowdoin," Library Journal (Dec. 1965), pp. 
5192 5194. 

The Visual Arts Center 
1. Mildred F. Schmertz, "An Art Center by Edward Larrabee Barnes," 

Architectural Record (Mat. 1978): 108. 



THE SECOND WALK 

The Back Campus and Mall 

1. Herbert Ross Brown, Sills of Bowdoin (New York: Columbia University 
Press, 1964), p. 376. 

2. Sp. Coll., Alumni Council Minutes, 1924. 



ENDNOTES I 97 



3. Brown, p. 265. 

4 . Report of the President, 1 9 7 6- 1 9 7 7 . 

5. Sp. Coll., Building Plans Committee, Dec. 1949 meeting. 

Heating Plant 

1. Orient, Nov. 10, 1886, p. 135. 

2. John V. GorT, Felix Arnold Burton, draft typescript for Maine Historic 
Preservation Commission series, A Biographical Dictionary of Architects 
in Maine, July 1985. 

Sargent Gymnasium and General Thomas Worcester Hyde Athletic 
Building 

1. Sp. Coll., Hyde AB box — pamphlet. The dedication was in June 191 3. 
See Bowdoin College Bulletin, new series, no. 48-2. 

2. Wm. D. Hyde to W. L. Putnam, May 7, 1900. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. 
A-H. 

3. Sp. Coll., Hyde AB box. 

4. Ibid. 

The Volar Bear 
1. S. Marsh to W. McCormick, Sp. Coll., Class of 191 2. 

Dudley Coe Health Center 
1. In a quotation in the Report of the President, 1916—1917, p. 9. 

Curtis Pool 

1. C. H. K. Curtis to Wm. D. Hyde, June 30, 191 3. Sp. Coll., Cyrus H. K. 
Curtis h 191 3 bio-file. 

2. F. Payson to H. Coombs, Nov. 1926. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Curtis Pool. 

3 . Report of the President, 1 9 1 8- 1 9 1 9 . 

4. McKim, Mead, and White to K. C. M. Sills, Dec. 7, 1926. Sp. Coll., 
Bldgs.: Curtis Pool. 

5. Jan. 1 1, 1928. 

Moulton Union 

1. A. F. Moulton to D. D. Lancaster, April 12, 1929. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: 
M.U., Correspondence. 

2. June 17, 1913. 

3. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: M.U. 1930, descriptive brochure. 

Sills Hall and Smith Auditorium 

1. March 23, 1949. 

2. Ibid. 



198 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Parker Cleaveland Hall 

1. Sp. Coll., Sesquicentennial Campaign. 

2. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Cleaveland Hall. 

3. Sp. Coll., Sesquicentennial Campaign. 

Dayton Arena 
1. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Dayton Arena. 

The Lineman 
1. J. S. Coles to W. Zorach, Aug. 13, 1964. Bowdoin College Museum of 
Art object folder. 



THE THIRD WALK 

The Perimeter 

1. Sp. Coll., pp. 9, 18, 19. 

2. An illustrated brochure describing the house and grounds is available 
from the Office of the Director, Breckinridge Public Affairs Center, 
Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 0401 1. 

3. The present First Parish Church is the congregation's third structure. 
The first was further out on Maine Street; this is the second one on this 
site. 

Rhodes Hall 

1. J. P. Booker to Trustees, Aug. 1, 1864. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Rhodes Hall. 
The frame building was sold at auction when Rhodes Hall was finished 
(Brunswick Telegraph, May 1, 1868, p. 2). 

2. Tenth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools of the State of 
Maine, December 1863 (Augusta: Stevens and Sagward, 1863), p. 185 and 
appendix. 

3. The three scholars were Robert Peter Tristram Coffin '15, Edward 
Billings Ham '22, and Allen Sheppard Johnson. 

Class of 1878 Gateway 
1. Orient, July 15, 1904, pp. 101— 103. 

The First Parish Church 

1 . Thompson Eldridge Ashby, D.D., A History of the First Parish Church in 
Brunswick, Maine, ed. Louise Helmreich (Brunswick: J. H. French and 
Son, 1969), pp. 159, 178, 185. 

2. Wm. Smyth to R. Upjohn, New York Public Library Division of Manu- 
scripts and Archives; photocopy in Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Chapel: Upjohn 
Correspondence, Box 1. 

3. New York: George P. Putnam, 1852. 

4. P. 436. 



ENDNOTES 1 99 



5. American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, 
p. 439. 

6. Ashby, p. 1 86-189. The letters were published in the Boston Recorder, a 
Congregational newspaper. The first letter, signed "A Pilgrim," 
appeared in the issue of Feb. 20, 1 845 , and Dr. Adams's reply, signed "A 
Puritan," appeared on Mar. 6, 1845. 

Franklin Clement Robinson Gateway 

1. Orient, July 15, 1904, pp. 101-103. 

2. Orient, June 21, 1923, p. 3. 

Class of 1875 Gateway 
1. "Architecture of American Colleges VII" (Feb. 191 1): 156. 

Theta Delta Chi House 
1. ETA Plans a New Home at Bowdoin. Sp. Coll., Fraternity, Box 4. See 
Orient, June 14, 1904, p. 77, for a drawing of the original house. The 
Bowdoin Alumnus for June 1941, p. 117, includes a photograph of the 
original house. 

Psi Upsilon House 

1 . John Calvin Stevens and Albert Winslow Cobb, Examples of American 
Domestic Architecture (New York: William F. Comstock, 1889). 

2. Myers, pp. 167-172. 

Ashby House 
1. Clipping in Sp. Coll., Ashby, Thompson h '30, folder. 

BOODY-JOHNSON HOUSE 

1 . R. Upjohn to L. Woods, July 15, 1 8 5 1 . Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Chapel Papers, 
I. 

2. Typescript of H. Boody to Mother, March 2, 1850. Sp. Coll., Boody, 
Henry Hill, file. The original, which is in the possession of the Boody 
family, is reproduced in the Bowdoin Alumnus, Oct. 1959. 

3. Gervase Wheeler, "Design and Description of an English Cottage, The 
Horticulturist (Aug. 5, 1849), PP- 77~79- 

4. William Brown, The Carpenter's Assistant, 5th ed. (Boston, 1853), figs. 
11, 13, and pp. 42-44. Andrew Jackson Downing, The Architecture of 
Country Houses (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1850), design xxv, fig. 
1 30 on p. 300, pp. 298-304. All of these designs are discussed in Vincent 
J. Scully, Jr., pp. 1 21-142. Photocopies of the relevant sections of Brown 
and Downing are in Sp. Coll., Bldgs., Boody- Johnson House. 

Warren Eastman Robinson Gateway 
1. H. J. Chase to A. J. Robinson, Feb. 24, 191 9. Sp. Coll., Johnson Papers. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



2. Brunswick Record, Nov. 27, 19 18, p. 1. Clipping in Sp. Coll., Robinson, 
Warren Eastman '10, folder. 

Delta Sigma House 

1. Brunswick Record, May 26, 1905, p. 1. See also Dec. 23, 1904, p. 1. 

2. Brunswick Telegraph, July 3, 1874, p. 2. See also May 22, 1874, p. 2. 

3 . A photograph on the cover of a pamphlet annual report, Delta Upsilon 
Bowdoin Chapter, June 191 1, in Sp. Coll., Fraternities, Box 3, shows the 
original paint. By 1938 the cupola was gone and the paint was lighter 
(probably white). See The Polar Bear, May 18, 1938, p. 6, Sp. Coll., 
Fraternities, Box 3. 

Delta Kappa Epsilon House 
1. Hatch, The History of Bowdoin College, opposite p. 326. In Sp. Coll., 
Fraternities, Box 2, is a pamphlet, The Plans and Exterior of Chapter House 
for Theta Chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon, Bow do in College, 1899, with a 
reproduction of a watercolor rendering of the exterior, ground plans, 
and living room of the house. 

Coles Tower, Wentworth Hall, and Chamberlain Hall 

1 . "Spike's Peak," Newsweek (Nov. 2, 1964): 65 . "Ivory Tower for Bowdoin 
College," Architectural Record 137 (June 1965): 146-149. 

2. Brown, p. 325. 

3. Other reminders of Walter V. Wentworth on the campus are the Went- 
worth Laboratory in Cleaveland Hall and a granite stone behind Massa- 
chusetts Hall inscribed: "Generous gifts of Walter V. Wentworth of the 
class of 1886 are all about you." 

4. "Ivory Tower for Bowdoin College," p. 146. 

Alpheus Spring Packard Gateway 
1. Sp. Coll., Documentary History, May 1939-Oct. 1940, includes a clip- 
ping with a photograph from the Brunswick Record o£ June 20, 1940, and 
Stanley P. Chase's acceptance speech. 

Zeta Psi House 
1. Quoted in the Orient, Nov. 5, 1903, p. 125. 

Pickard Field, Pickard Field House, and Walter Farley Field House 
1 . John V. Goff, Samuel B. Dunning: Brunswick' s First Architect (Brunswick: 
Pejepscot Historical Society, 1984), p. 1. 

Alpha Kappa Sigma House 

1. Hatch, The History of Bowdoin College, opposite p. 327, and a flyer in Sp. 
Coll., Fraternities, Box 1. 

2. Duddy, Edward A., "The Caduceus of Kappa Sigma," Caduceus (1905- 



ENDNOTES 



06), typed copy of an article from the national fraternity periodical, Sp. 
Coll., Fraternities, Box 1, supplied by Donovan D. Lancaster. 
3. A History of the Alpha-Rho Chapter of Kappa Sigma, Bowdoin College, 
March 22, iSpj-ip^j, ed. Frederick H. Dole '97, pp. 52-55. Sp. Coll., 
Fraternities, Box 1. 

Whittier Field, Hubbard Grandstand, and Class of 1903 Gateway 

1. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Whittier Field, p. 3. 

2. "The Dedication of the Hubbard Grandstand," Bowdoin College, June 
22, 1904, pamphlet. Sp. Coll., Bldgs.: Hubbard Grandstand, pp. 3-5. 

3. F. R. Johnson to H. J. Chase, Feb. 17, 19 19, includes a statement that 
President Sills wants a gate to the athletic fields, but "Anne does not 
take to anything connected to athletics." 

4. Report of the President, 1914-191 5, "Gifts to the Museum," p. 48. 

5. Sp. Coll., Class of 1903 folder. See also the Orient, April 18, 1928, p.i. 

Pine Grove Cemetery and Pine Grove Apartments 
1. Hatch, The History of Bowdoin College, p. 35. 

85 Federal Street and Marshall Perley Cram Alumni House 
1. William D. Shipman, The Early Architecture of Bowdoin College and Bruns- 
wick, Maine, p. 57. See also William D. Shipman, "So You Think You 
Know Federal Street," pp. 10-12. A pencil plan of 1 870-1 873 is in Sp. 
Coll., Bldgs.: Misc. A-H. 



GLOSSARY 

architectonic massing: the arrangement or composition of the large exterior 

forms of a building 
architrave: in the classical orders the horizontal member between the frieze 

and the capitals of the columns 
articulation: the different parts of a building, particularly as they are related 

to one another 
Art Deco: an architectural style of 1920— 1940 characterized by broad verti- 
cal planes, setbacks (on skyscrapers), sharp, geometrical crests, and 

incised decorative motifs 
astylar: literally, in Greek, without column; in Shingle Style refers to use of 

classical details without the traditional orders 
balustrade: a handrail, roof, or portico rail supported by balusters, generally 

decoratively carved 
bargeboard: decoratively cut finish for lower edge of gable roof in frame 

Gothic Revival buildings 
barrel vault: a ceiling which consists of a semicylindrical vault in masonry or 

wood 
baroque: an architectural style of the seventeenth and early eighteenth cen- 
turies, using classical and Renaissance forms, but in a more dynamic 

ornamental and three-dimensional fashion 
bay: the intervals between recurring members such as windows, columns, 

pilasters 
belt course: see stringcourse 
board and batten: sheathing made of wide vertical boards with the joints 

covered by narrow wooden battens, often used in Gothic Revival frame 

buildings 
boss: an ornamental projection usually at the intersection of masonry vault 

ribs or wooden beams 
bracket: an ornamental projection, often "supporting" eaves, porticoes, or 

hooded windows 
buttress: a masonry vertical that projects from the exterior wall of a vaulted 

structure to counteract the thrust of the interior vaults; used also in the 

frame structures of the Gothic Revival 
campanile: a bell tower; can be freestanding 
cantilever: a beam or section of a building supported at one end only and 

projecting in the air 



chamfer: a bevel; the flat surface left when an edge or corner is cut away; to 
bevel or to cut off the edge or corner angle 

Classical Revival: a late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century monumental 
architectural style based on both classical antiquity and the Renaissance; 
often characterized by a colonnade 

clerestory: an elevated series of windows found among other places in 
Gothic cathedrals and modern gymnasiums 

colonnette: any very small column 

Colonial Revival: a specifically American domestic architecture style of 
1880— 1955 based on forms and motifs from the historical period 1720 to 
1820 

corbel: a projecting masonry block for support of an upper element, such as 
a cornice 

cornice: a projecting, horizontal element used as the crowning decorative 
member of an entranceway, or over a window. Originally the topmost of 
the three parts of a classical entablature 

crocket: in the Gothic Revival Style, an adaptation, often in wood, of the 
original stone curved foliage clusters. Used to decorate the underside of 
steep gables, often meant, not always accurately, when the word "gin- 
gerbread" is used 

crenellation: an indented parapet, the crowning member of a fortified medie- 
val castle; found as a decorative detail in Gothic Revival buildings 

drip molding: a Gothic masonry or wood molding framing the top of win- 
dows or doors and ending at right angles to either side to deflect rain 
from the wall 

dormer: window projecting from the angle of the roof; may be crowned 
with, among others, a shed roof, or a triangular pediment 

eave: the lower edge of a roof where it overhangs the wall 

elevation: one side of a building, usually seen head on. Technically an archi- 
tectural scale drawing which shows the vertical elements of a ground 
plan 

Elizabethan: a transitional style coinciding with the reign of Elizabeth I 
(1 5 5 8-1603); characterized by a mixture of late Gothic and Renaissance 
forms 

entablature: anciently in post and lintel construction, the lintel or horizontal 
member, which strictly consisted of three bands (architrave, frieze, and 



204 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



cornice) and was supported by the columns, together with which they 
formed an order: Doric, Ionic, etc. In revival styles this is often modi- 
fied, imaginatively or not, but in any case is or was an important aspect 
of the impact of the structure 

eyebrow windows: attic windows found in Greek Revival architecture; 
sometimes oval and inserted in the wide frieze band; in Richardsonian 
and Shingle Styles, shallow curved dormers set into the roof 

fanlight: a semicircular or semielliptical window (often called a light) above 
a door. Typically, Colonial fanlights are semicircular, while Federal (and 
later) are broader and semielliptical 

Federal style: in American building, the style following Colonial and so 
named to coincide with this country's emergence as a nation. Character- 
ized by both larger and more delicately detailed structures 

fenestration: the type and arrangement of windows in a building 

finial: an ornament placed at the top of a gable, spire, canopy, or other 
vertical element 

Flemish bond: in brickwork the alternating of headers and stretchers in each 
course; in the simpler English bond, courses of headers alternate with 
stretchers; in common bond each course consists of stretchers 

frieze: anciently the middle area of the horizontal entablature supported by 
columns. More modernly a long decorative horizontal band, often 
encircling a structure just under the roof line 

gable: the triangular area formed by the meeting of the two slopes of a 
double pitched roof. Can be on the main facade or on the sides. A 
stepped gable substitutes the straight diagonal for a series of steplike 
progressions upward (or downward) 

gallery: in a church or cathedral, upper spaces overlooking the nave or 
central portion 

gambrel: a roof construction which differs from the double pitched, triangu- 
lar gable end, by breaking each pitch into two parts, the lower steeper 
than the upper. The resultant gable is not triangular, but unevenly pen- 
tagonal. A roof form used extensively in Colonial dwellings and revived 
in the more picturesquely irregular forms of the Shingle Style 

Georgian style: Neo-Georgian or Georgian Revival refers to the more formal 
brick examples of Colonial Revival, which are often derived from Eng- 
lish models 

Gothic Revival style: an architectural style in the United States from ca. 



GLOSSARY 205 



1 840-1 880 (earlier in England) in which details and massing were 
derived from medieval prototypes 

Greek Revival style: a building style following the Federal in which classical 
elements such as large columns and facade gables modeled after ancient 
originals produced structures, both private and public, of substantial 
monumentality 

hipped roof: a roof that pitches inward from all four sides. Differs from 
gabled or gambrel roof in appearing the same from any side 

inglenook: a recessed seat flanking a fireplace, often found in Shingle Style 
and Colonial Revival houses 

Italianate or Italian villa style: a building style in wood or masonry from ca. 
1840 to 1880 which borrowed details from less formal Italian country 
houses; characterized by tall proportions, cupolas, and brackets 

Jacobethan: a style with elements of Elizabethan and Jacobean architecture, 
usually combining late Gothic and classical Renaissance motifs in the 
same structure 

keystone: the central wedge-shaped stone at the crown of an arch. Many 
nicely decorated nineteenth-century examples remain 

light or sidelight: an omnibus architectural term generally synonymous with 
windows and with other glazed areas which may not serve for 
ventilation 

lintel: a horizontal member spanning an opening such as a door or window 
to add structural soundness and to serve as an important decorative 
element 

loggia: a covered passage either arcaded or colonnaded, attached to a build- 
ing or connecting several buildings 

Mansard: a roof type of the mid- to late nineteenth century, comparable to a 
gambrel in having a double pitch, comparable to a hipped in that all four 
sides are treated equally. Characteristically the lower pitch is very steep, 
often concave, while the upper has a much gentler slope. Provides an 
almost full extra story. The name is a corruption of Mansart, a French 
Baroque architect of the seventeenth century, hence its popularity in the 
Baroque Revival style 

mastic: thin cement coating used over brick, either on the entire building or 
around doors, windows, and other possibly decorative areas, usually to 
simulate the effect of stone, hence adding to the monumentality of a 
structure at a lower cost 



206 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Mission style: an eclectic American style, ca. 1890— 1920, which spread 
eastward from California, in which motifs from Spanish colonial archi- 
tecture, such as tile roofs, arches, stucco, and parapets, can be found; in 
furniture severely simplified; sturdy rectilinear forms predominate 

molding: ornamental, projecting parts used in both wood and masonry con- 
struction that both define and decorate the larger and the smaller forms. 
The particular types vary 

monitor: a square or rectangular central roof structure, glazed to admit light 

nave: the main body or central aisle of a church 

Neo-Classic: see Classical Revival 

Neo-Georgian: see above 

oriel: a bay window projecting from an upper story and supported by 
corbels 

Palladian: a particular and handsome window treatment, usually on the 
principal facade where there are three lights, the central higher and 
arched, the flanking windows lower and square-headed. Derives from an 
idea used by the sixteenth-century architect Palladio 

parapet: 2l low protective wall seen above the cornice of a building; also on 
balconies or bridges 

pavilion: a large central or end projection in a building; also wings or free- 
standing garden structures 

pediment: a crowning building, door, or window member which can be 
triangular, slightly circular, or even broken, as in two scrolls almost 
meeting. Derives from ancient architecture where the double pitched 
roof was constructed to form a triangular gable on the principal facade, 
often filled with sculpture as in the Parthenon. Used extensively over 
doors and windows in the Renaissance, Baroque, and later Classical 
Revival styles 

piano nobile: in Italian the principal story raised above ground level; in 
French re^-de-chaussee; in English the first floor 

pia^a: in American domestic buildings a covered porch which often wraps 
around the building 

pilaster: a flattened, attached column in the sense of often retaining base, 
shaft, and capital of an ancient order, but serving as a flat projecting 
member, to divide or articulate parts of a building. Can be much simpli- 
fied decoratively, but still serve the same proportional function 

pinnacle: a conical or pyramidal ornament terminating a gable 



GLOSSARY 207 



podium: the continuous base of a building 

polychromy: literally, many color; specifically, a style of nineteenth-century 
ecclesiastical interior design, usually in conjunction with Gothic and 
Romanesque Revival architecture 

portico: a porch, usually over a central entrance way and often using a low 
pitched roof supported by slender columns 

program: the architectural requirements of a building, including use, availa- 
ble space, site, cost, materials, and appearance 

Queen Anne style: a late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century style, 
derived from English models, but modified imaginatively in the United 
States to include classical, Shingle Style, Romanesque Revival, and Stick 
Style elements. Most frequently but not exclusively seen locally in frame 
buildings. The plan is frequently asymmetrical and the exterior may 
include a small Palladian window and brackets 

quoin: bricks or stones laid in alternating directions on the corners of build- 
ings, so that the separation between is quite obvious. Also done in frame 
construction 

Rococo: a late eighteenth-century style characterized in France by light 
colors and gilding, arabesques, and seemingly domestic scale 

Romanesque Revival style: a mid- and late-nineteenth-century style derived 
from the sturdy masonry proportions and round arches of the imme- 
diately pre-Gothic style in Europe 

rondel: a round architectural member, used ornamentally, sometimes 
glazed. A part of the revival vocabulary borrowed from Renaissance and 
Baroque architecture, but used in a nineteenth-century manner 

salient pier buttress: from Gothic structure, a buttress which abuts the build- 
ing to counter the thrust of the vault, hence not a flying buttress 

segmental arches: very shallow arches, often tops of windows and doors 

Shingle Style: a turn-of-the-century domestic style found in suburban 
dwellings and large summer homes; characterized by open asymmetric 
plans, dark shingles, often gambrel roofs, terra cotta panels, occasional 
colonnettes 

soldier course: see stringcourse 

stage: an articulated section of a tower or steeple 

stringcourse or string course: 2. projecting horizontal course of masonry which 
deflects rain and articulates interior stories; also called belt course and 
soldier course 



trabeated: the structural system which relies on uprights (ports, columns) 
and horizontals (lintels, beams) rather than vaults 

tracery: ornamental shapes made by stone window mullions in medieval 

building 
transept: the lateral arms of a cross-shaped church, at right angles to the 

nave. A term from Gothic architecture which in modern building may 

be modified 
vault: an arched roof or ceiling; a barrel vault is continuously semicircular in 

cross section 
veranda: see piazza 
villa: from country house it came to mean any suburban middle-class 

dwelling 
volute: a scroll-like, curved bracket, often double 
wainscot: interior wood paneling to dado or chair rail height 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Anderson, Patricia McGraw, and Josephine H. Detmer. Portland. 2d ed. 
Portland, Maine: Greater Portland Landmarks, 1986. 

Ashby, Thompson Eldridge, D.D. A History of the First Parish Church in 
Brunswick, Maine. Edited by Louise R. Helmreich. Brunswick, Maine: J. 
H. French & Son, 1969. Originally published in weekly installments in 
the church calendar, 193 5-1945. 

Barnett, Jonathan. "College Buildings Should Be Part of Unified Campus 
Design." Architectural Record 137 (June 1965): 143-149. 

Blanchard, Edwin H., '17 and Samuel A. Ladd, Jr. '29, eds. An Informal 
History of the Lambda Chapter of Zeta Psi at Bowdoin College, 1867—1967. 
Brunswick, Maine: Brunswick Publishing Company, 1967. 

Blodgett, Geoffrey. Oberlin College Architecture, A Short History. Pamphlet. 
Yellow Springs, Ohio: Oberlin College, 1979. 

Borton, Mark C. Vassar: A Photographic Celebration. Haddam, Connecticut: 
Embassy Imprints, 1984. 

Boyer, Kenneth J. "Library Facilities at Bowdoin College, 1 802-1 960." 
Bowdoin Alumnus 34 (December 1959): 2—7. 

Brault, Gerard J. "The Earliest Painting of the Bowdoin College Campus." 
Old Time New England 5 1 (1961): 101— 103. 

. A Checklist of Portraits of the Campus of Bowdoin College before the Civil 



War. Typescript copy in Special Collections, i960. 

Brown, Herbert Ross. Sills of Bowdoin. New York: Columbia University 
Press, 1964. 

Bryan, John Morrill. An Architectural History of South Carolina College. Co- 
lumbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina, 1976. 

Buildings and Grounds of Yale University. New Haven: Yale University Press, 
1979. 

Bunting, Bainbridge. Harvard: An Architectural History. Completed and 
edited by Margaret Henderson Floyd. Cambridge: Harvard University 
Press, Belknap Press, 1985. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Bunting, Bainbridge, and Robert H. Nylander. Survey of Architectural His- 
tory in Cambridge. Report Four: Old Cambridge. Cambridge: Cambridge 
Historical Commission and M.I.T. Press, 1973. 

Bush-Brown, Albert. "Image of a University: A Study of Architecture as an 
Expression of Education at Colleges and Universities in the U.S. be- 
tween 1800 and 1900." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1959. 

Cleaveland, Nehemiah, and Alpheus Spring Packard. History of Bowdoin 
College. Boston: J. R. Osgood, 1882. 

Committee on Self- Study. The Conservative Tradition in Education at Bowdoin 
College. Brunswick, Maine: Bowdoin College, 1956. 

Daniels, Elizabeth A. Main to Mudd: An Informal History of Vassar College 
Buildings. Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, 1987. 

Downing, Andrew J. The Architecture of Country Houses. New York: D. 
Appleton & Co., 185 1. Dover Publications, 1969. 

Emanuel, Muriel, ed. Contemporary Architects. New York: St. Martin's 
Press, 1980. 

Eskew, Garnett Laidlaw. Cradle of Ships. New York: Putnam, 1958. 

Fielding, Mantle. Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers. 
Philadelphia: Printed for subscribers, 1926. 

"From the Falls to the Bay." Brunswick, Maine: American Association of 
University Women, 1980. 

Glasscock, Jean, ed. Wellesley College 187J—197J: A Century of Women. Welles- 
ley, Ma.: Wellesley College, 1975. 

Goff, John V. "Felix Arnold Burton." Draft typescript for Maine Historic 
Preservation Commission series, A Biographical Dictionary of Architects 
in Maine, July 1985. 

— . Samuel B. Dunning: Brunswick' s First Architect. Brunswick, Maine: 



Pejepscot Historical Society, 1984. 

Greason, Pauline S. "A Small Town Is So Friendly: Frances Robinson 
Johnson Remembers." Bowdoin Alumnus 55 (Winter 1982): 19-21. 

— . "Johnson House." Unpublished manuscript written for a course 



at University of Maine, Portland-Gorham, 1974. Copy in Sp. Coll. 
Boody- Johnson House folder. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Hamlin, A. D. F. "Recent American College Architecture." The Outlook 
(August i, 1903): 790 799. 

Hatch, Louis C. The History of Bowdoin College. Portland, Maine: Loring, 
Short & Harmon, 1927. 

Hatch, Louis Clinton, ed. Maine: A History. Facsimile of 191 9 edition. 
Somersworth, N.H.: New Hampshire Publishing Company, 1974. 

Helmreich, Ernst. Religion at Bowdoin College: A History. Brunswick, Maine: 
Bowdoin College, 198 1. 

Hilen, Andrew, ed. The Tetters of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Volume 1, 
181 4- 1836. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1966. 

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell. American Architectural Books. Minneapolis: 
University of Minnesota Press, 1962. 

Holden, Reuben A. Yale : A Pictorial History. New Haven: Yale University 
Press, 1967. 

Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz. Alma Mater. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 
1984. 

"Ivory Tower for Bowdoin College." Architectural Record 137 (June 1965): 
146—149. 

King, Stanley. "The Consecrated Eminence" : The Story of the Campus and Build- 
ings of Amherst College. Amherst, Ma.: Amherst College, 195 1. 

Kirkland, Edward Chase. Brunswick's Golden Age. Lewiston, Maine: C. P. 
Loring, printer, 1941. 

Klauder, Charles Z., and Herbert C. Wise. College Architecture in America. 
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929. 

Lincoln, Eleanor Terry, and John Abel Pinto. This, The House We Live In. 
Northampton, Ma.: Smith College, 1983. 

Little, George Thomas. "Historical Sketch." General Catalogue of Bowdoin 
College and the Medical School of Maine 1794-1894. Brunswick, Maine: Bow- 
doin College, 1894. 

Morgan, William. The Almighty Wall: The Architecture of Henry Vaughan. 
Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1983. 



212 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Myers, Denys Peter. Maine Catalog: Historic American Buildings Survey. Au- 
gusta, Maine: Maine State Museum, 1974. 



Pierson, William H., Jr. American Buildings and Their Architects. Vol. 1, The 
Colonial and Neoclassical Styles. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970. 

— . American Buildings and Their Architects. Vol. 2, Technology and the 



Picturesque: The Corporate and Early Gothic Styles. Garden City, N.Y.: 
Doubleday, 1978. 

— . "Richard Upjohn, Leonard Woods, and the Bowdoin Chapel Con- 



spiracy." Notes of a lecture given at Bowdoin College, October 29, 
198 1. Copy in Special Collections. 

Powell, William S. The First State University: A Pictorial History of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1972. 

Rand, Sally W "The Chamberlain House." Manuscript report in the pos- 
session of the Pejepscot Historical Society, Brunswick, Maine, 1984. 

Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. New York: 
Icon Editions, Harper & Row, 1979. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. New York: Harper & Row, 



1983. 

Rudolph, Frederick. The American College and University: A History. New 
York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962. 

Salzman, Nancy Lurie. Buildings and Builders: An Architectural History of 
Boston University. Boston: Boston University, 1985. 

Schmertz, Mildred F. "An Art Center by Edward Larrabee Barnes." Archi- 
tectural Record 163 (March 1978): 107— 116. 

Schuyler, Montgomery. "Architecture of American Colleges VII: Brown, 
Bowdoin, Trinity, Wesleyan." Architectural Record (February 191 1): 151- 
156. 

Scully, Vincent J., Jr. "Romantic Rationalism and the Expression of Struc- 
ture in Wood: Downing, Wheeler, Gardner, and the 'Stick Style' 
1840—76" Art Bulletin 35 (1953): 121— 142. 

— . The Shingle Style. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955. 



Searing, Helen. New American Art Museums. Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1982. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 21 3 



Shipman, William D. The Architecture of Bowdoin College and Brunswick, 
Maine. Rev. ed. Brunswick, Maine: Brunswick Publishing Co., 1985. 

— . "So You Think You Know Federal Street?" Bowdoin Alumnus 54 



(Fall 1980): 7-12. 

"Spike's Peak." Newsweek. November 2, 1964: 65. 

Stameshkin, David Mitchell. The Town's College: Middlebury College 1800- 
191 j. Middlebury, Vt.: Middlebury College Press, 1985. 

Stanton, Phoebe B. The Gothic Revival and American Church Architecture: An 
Episode in Taste, 1840-1816. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968. 

Stubbins, Hugh A. Architecture in the Spirit of the Times. Tokyo: Process 
Architecture; Westfield, N.J.: Eastview Editions, 1979. 

Thompson, Deborah, ed. Maine Forms of American Architecture. Camden, 
Maine: Colby College Museum of Art and DownEast Magazine, 1976. 

Tolles, Bryant Franklin, Jr. College Architecture in Northern New England 
before i860: A Social and Cultural History. Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 
1970, and Antiques (March 1973): 502-509. 

Turner, Paul. Campus. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1984. 

Upjohn, Everard M. Richard Upjohn, Architect and Churchman. New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1939. Da Capo Press, 1968. 

Varney, George J. "The Art Treasures of Bowdoin College." The Art Jour- 
nal (1880): 375-378. Copy in Bowdoin College Museum of Art file. 

Wallace, Willard Mosher. Soul of the Lion: A Biography of General Joshua L. 
Chamberlain. New York: T Nelson, i960. 

West, Richard V. The Walker Art Building Murals: Occasional Papers I. Bruns- 
wick, Maine: Bowdoin College, 1972. 

Wheeler, George Augustus, and Henry Warren Wheeler. History of Bruns- 
wick, Topsham, and Harp swell, Maine. A facsimile of the 1878 edition with 
a new foreword by Louise R. Helmreich. Somersworth, N.H.: New 
Hampshire Publishing Co. in collaboration with the Pejepscot Histori- 
cal Society, 1974. 

Whitehill, Walter Muir. Museum of Tine Arts Boston: A Centennial History. 
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1970. 



Whitten, Marcus. American Architecture Since i/So. Cambridge: M.I.T. 
Press, 1969. 

Willard, Ashton R. "The Development of College Architecture in Amer- 
ica." New England Magazine 16 (July 1987): 513—534. 

Wilson, Richard Guy. McKim, Mead <& White, Architects. New York: Riz- 
zoli, 1983. 

Withey, Henry F., and Elise Rathburn Withey. Biographical Dictionary of 
American Architects (deceased). Los Angeles: Hennessey and Ingalls, 
1970. 



INDEX 



Numbers in bold type indicate building entries. 

Abrahamson, Albert, 66 

Adams, George E., 131 

Adams, Frances, 1 3 3 

Adams Hall, 29—30; built, 4; art instruction in, 69; 
compared with Rhodes Hall, 121; mentioned, 
6, 11, 76, 109, 140 

Adams, Seth, 29, 32 

Additions to buildings, avoidance of, 82 

Afro- American Center, establishment of, 8 1 

Afro- American Society, 165 

Afro- American Studies Program, 165 

Allen and Collens, work on Dudley Coe Health 
Center, 95-96; Hyde Hall, 53-55; Sargent 
Gymnasium and Hyde Athletic Building, 
88-91; mentioned, 82, 136, 157 

Allen, William, presidency of, 3-4; mentioned, 
14, 19, 20, 23, 137 

Alpha Delta Phi House, 137-38 

Alpha Kappa Sigma House, 181, 146 

Alpha Rho Upsilon House, 143-44 

Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, 140 

Alumni Association, 93 

Alumni Council, 5 7 

Alumni Day, 75; November 1930, 57 

Alumni House, Marshall Perley Cram, 189, 
191—92 

Alumni, organization of, 34, 35, 74 

Alumni Weekend, 1938, 93 

Alvord, Henry B., 89 

Amherst College, 73 

Anderson, Abraham W, 159 

Anderson, John W, 159 

Anderson, Wendell A., 159 

Andover Theological Seminary, 4, 7 

Anglican Church, 23, 130-31 

Appleton, Jesse, 3; presidency of, 7; tomb of, 185 

Appleton Hall, 19—21; 4; refurbished, 15; engrav- 
ing of, 29 

Architecture of Country Houses, 36, 154 

Architectural Record, 54, 142, 167, 169 

Arctic Museum, Peary-MacMillan, 5 2 

Army War College, Washington, 91 

Art collection, Bowdoin family, 4, 27; first cata- 
logue of, 44; peregrinations of, 44; storage of, 
69 

Art curriculum, growth of, 48; art history, inclu- 
sion of, 48 

Art Deco style, no 

Art, Department of, 140 

Arts, support for, 76 

Ashby House, 151—52 

Ashby, Rev. Thompson E., 129, 152 

Ashby, Mrs. Thompson E., 152 



Atelier Vaudremer, 86 

Athenaean Society, 2, 6, 14, 26 

Athletic Council, 75, 97 

Athletics, growth of, 6, 75, 85, 86, 177-79, 183-84 

Augusta Gospel Banner, 1 3 1 

Bachelor of Science degree, 5, 73, 133 

Backus, Samuel D, 33, 34 

Bangor Theological Seminary, 4, 5 , 133 

Banister Hall, 25, 27, 154 

Barker, James R., 189, 192 

Barnes, Edward L., 69-71 

Barr, Gleason, and Barr, 111-12 

Bates College, 6 

Bath Street, 1 1 7 

Bath Street Primary School, 121. See also Rhodes 
Hall 

Baxter, Hartley C, James P., John L., Mary, Perci- 
val P., 173 

Baxter House, 173, 144 

Beal, Robert W, 177-79 

Beam, Philip C, 76 

Beaux-Arts, Ecole des, 46, 70, 86, 99 

Benjamin, Asher, 129 

Berry, Harold L., 104, 107 

Beta Theta Pi House, 145-46 

Bethel Point Marine Research Station, 117 

Biology, Department of, 41 

Boarding Club, College, 123 

Bodley, George E, 40 

Boody, Henry H., 1 5 3—5 5 

Boody- Johnson House, 153—55, ll %> T 37 

Booker, Daniel A., 121 

Boston Public Library, 46 

Boston University, 81 

Bowdoin Alumni Memorial Hall Association, 3 5 

Bowdoin Alumnus, 70, 74 

Bowdoin Club, New York, 1 1 2 

Bowdoin College, founding of, 1 

Bowdoin College Museum of Art. See Museum of 
Art and Walker Art Building 

Bowdoin, George Sullivan, 90 

Bowdoin Institutes, 76 

Bowdoin, James II, college named for, 1 

Bowdoin, James III, guarantees patronage, 1 ; es- 
tate of, 24; art collection, 4, 27 

Bowdoin Magazine, 74 

Bowdoin Orient. See Orient, Bowdoin 

Bowdoin Prize, 102, 141 

Bowdoin Scientific Station, 117 

Bowdoin Union, 101 

Bowdoin Women, Society of, 55, 74 

Bowker, Robert, heirs of, 183 

Bradlee, N. J., 35 



216 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Breckinridge Public Affairs Center, 117, 198 
Third Walk n. 2 

Breuer, Marcel, 70 

Brewster, Owen, 99 

Brimmer, Martin, 48 

Brogyanyi, Gabriel J., 168 

Brooklyn Museum, 46 

Brown, Frederic W., 127 

Brown, Herbert R., 76 

Brown, John G., 13 

Brown University, 77, 90 

Brunswick Apartments, 187 

Brunswick Historic Resources Survey, 121, 127 

Brunswick Record, 152, 156 

Brunswick Telegraph, 121, 139, 161, 173, 189-90, 
191 

Bugle, 6 

Bulfinch, Charles, 10 

Burbank, John E., 183 

Burnett, Charles T., 139-40 

Burnett House, 139—40, 118, 148, 189 

Burnett, Sue W., 139-40 

Burton, Felix A., work on Alpha Delta Phi 
House, 137-38; Alpheus Spring Packard 
Gateway, 171; ballroom addition, 85 Federal 
Street, 190; Chase Barn Chamber, 155; Presi- 
dent's Gateway, 119; Franklin Clement Robin- 
son Gateway, 135—36; Warren Eastman Robin- 
son Gateway, 1 56-57; Theta Delta Chi House, 
147-48; mentioned, 55, 87, 90, 95, 101, 1 84 

Campus Planning, 82 

Campus planning, U.S., 54, 81-82; second phase, 

82 
Campus plans, 1938, 76; 1949— 1950, 82; 1958, 82; 

1979, 81,93 
Canal Bank Block, Portland, 175 
Capital Campaign, 64, 78, 82 
Carpenter's Assistant, 154 

Casco Bank and Trust Company, Portland, 64 
Catalogue, Bowdoin College, 7; 1862, 29; 191 2— 191 3, 

48 
Catalogue of the art collections, first, 44; second, 

48 
Cathedral Church of St. Luke, Portland, 40 
Cathedral Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, 

Washington (National Cathedral), 40 
Centennial Exposition, 146 
Cerasi, Vincent, 1 1 2 
Chadbourne, Paul A., 30, 31 
Chamberlain Hall, 167—69 
Chamberlain House, 133-34, 1 18 
Chamberlain, Joshua L., presidency of, 5-6; res- 
ignation of, 7; grave of, 187; mentioned, 35, 73, 

90, 118, 133-34, 137, 190 



Chandler, Peleg, 11, 190 

Chapel attendance, 76 

Chapel, 23-28, completion of, 5 ; engraving of, 29; 
art collection in, 44; shelving built in the 
basement of, 63; influences site of Visual Arts 
Center, 71; mentioned, 4, 36, 130, 154 

Chapel-library, frame, 1, 11, 44 

Chapman and Frazer, 163, 173 

Chapman, Henry L., 141 

Chapman, John H, 163 

Charter, Bowdoin College, 9 

Chase Barn Chamber, 1 5 5 

Chase, Helen J. , 155, 156, 157 

Chase, Stanley P., 155, 200 Alpheus Spring Pack- 
ard Gateway n. 1 

Chateau, 1 37 

Chemistry, Department of, 41, 109-10 

Chi Psi House, 158-59 

Choate, Mrs. Whitney, 59 

Civil War memorials, building of, 33-34 

Citicorp Center, New York, 169 

Classical Revival style, 42, 46, 82, 150 

Class of 1875 Gateway, 141-42; 71 

Class of 1878 Gateway, 124, 142 

Class of 1903 Gateway, 183—84; 102 

Class of 1907, 1 19 

Class of 1912, 93, 178 

Class of 1922 Fountain, 67, 59 

Classics, Department of, 108 

Cleaveland Cabinet, 1 1 

Cleaveland, John, 189 

Cleaveland, Nehemiah, 34 

Cleaveland, Parker, 3, 11, 29, 109, 117, 187 

Cleaveland, Parker, Hall, 109-10, 41, 77, 82 

Cleaveland, Parker, house, 164, 189 

Cloisters, the, 90 

Cloudman, Harry H, 93 

Clough, Burton M., 181 

Cobb, Albert W, 150 

Coe, Dudley, 95 

Coe, Dudley, Health Center, 95-96, 83 

Coe, Thomas Upham, 95 

Coffin, Charles, 10 

Coffin, Robert P. T, 76, 198 Rhodes Hall n. 3 

Colby College, 4, 6, 34, 183 

Coleman Hall, 61, 105 

Coles house, Harpswell, 169 

Coles, James S., presidency of, 79-80; mentioned, 
59, 63, 75, 77, 82, 103, 113, 115, 167, 169 

Coles Tower, 167-69, 64, 78, 81, 82, 114, 123 

College architect, 76, 82, 98 

College Street, 1 17 

Collens, Charles, 88-91 

Collins Professorship of Natural and Revealed 
Religion, 4-5 



INDEX 



2I 7 



Colonial Revival style, 55, 86, 88,90, 96, 102, 125, 

143, 149, 163, 181 
Columbia University, 74, 77, 81; Low Library, 46, 

50; Lion, 93 
Commencement, 128 
Committee on Self Study, 77 
Committee to Select an Architect for the Art 

Building, 69-70 
Commons, 123, 2, 30, 37, 85, 101, 109, 117, 121, 

127 
Comprehensive examinations, inauguration of, 

75; suspended, 77 
Congregational Church of the Pilgrims, Brook- 
lyn, 23 
Congregational churches, contribute to Chapel, 

25; Gothic style adapted for, 130-31 
Congregationalism, role of, in 1846 crisis, 4; at 

Bowdoin, 129 
Conservative Tradition in Education at Bowdoin College, 

11 

Coombs, Harry S., 98, 183—84 

Coombs, Isaac, 130 

Copeland House, 187 

Copeland, Manton, 187 

Copeland, Melvin T., 77 

Counseling Service, 96; establishment of, 81 

Country Builder s Assistant, 1 29 

Cox, Kenyon, 47 

Cram, Marshall, 191-92 

Cram, Marshall Perley, 192 

Cram, Marshall Perley, Alumni House, 189, 
191-92, 118 

Creamery Package Manufacturing Company, 112 

Crown Center, Kansas City, 70 

Cummings, H. P., Construction Company, 178 

Curriculum, art, growth of, 69; art history, inclu- 
sion of, 48; changes in, in 19 10, 73; in early 
1 800s, 2; post-Civil War experimentation, 5-6; 
science, expanded with Searles Science Build- 
ing, 42; science, growth of, 109 

Curtis, Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar, 97-99 

Curtis Memorial Library, 5 5 

Curtis, Mrs. William J., 74, 102 

Curtis Pool, 97—99 

Curtis Publishing Company, 97 

Curtis, William J., 54, 55, 58,98, 101, 141 

Daggett, Athern P., 80, 167 
Dartmouth College, 3, 73, 101, 112 
Daveis, Charles S., 5, 14, 23 
Daveis, Edward, 14 
Dayton Arena, 111— 12, 77, 82 
Dayton, Daniel Lacy, Jr., 112 
De Angelis, Sabatino, 47 
Decade of Progress, 77 



Delta, 30, 76, 107, 109 

Delta Drive, 77 

Delta Kappa Epsilon House, 163, 173 

Delta Sigma House, 161, 140 

Delta Upsilon fraternity, 161, 189. See also Delta 

Sigma House 
Design Five Maine, 179, 185-87 
Dining facilities, need for, 10 1 
Dober, Richard, 82 
Dole, William C, 85 
Dorics, 6 

Dormitories, need for, 2, 53, 61, 79 
Douglas, C. L., 138 
Downing, Andrew ]., 36, 154 
Drama, attendance forbidden, 6 
Duddy, E. A., 181 
Dudley Coe Health Center, 95—96 
Dunlap, David, heirs of, 189 
Dunlap, John, 10 

Dunlap, Robert P., 189; grave of, 187 
Dunning, Samuel B., 179 

Education, Department of, 108 

85 Federal Street, 189-91, 118, 119, 140. See also 

President's House 
Energy, cost of, 8 1 
English, Department of, 1 1 
Enteman, Willard F, presidency of, 81 
Episcopal churches, built in Gothic style, 130 
Everett, Ebenezer, 21 

Examples of American Domestic Architecture, 1 50 
Explorer's Club, 93 

Fales, Mary Ann, 133 

Farley, William, Field House, 177—79, 8 3 

Faron, John, 64, 196 Hawthorne-Longfellow 

Library n. 1 
Fassett, Francis H., 29-32, 35, 140, 150 
Federal Street, informal zoning of, 1 89 
Federal style, 14, 17, 91, 96, 108, 117, 129, 150 
Fehmer, Carl, 3 5 

Fellows, C. L., and Company, 184 
Field House, William Farley, 177-79, 8 3 
Field House, Pickard, 177-79, 61, 82 
5 5 Plus Center, 136 
Files, Edith D., 144 
Files, George T., 144, 149 
First Parish Church, 128—31, 28, 34, 36, 45, 74, 

114, 117, 152, 1 54, 198 Third Walk n. 3 
Flagpole, Memorial, 57 
Ford Foundation, 64 
Frazer, Horace S., 163 
Fraternities, founding of, 6; growth of, 75 
French, Daniel C, 48 
French Gothic style, 36 



218 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Fuller, Melville W., 158 

Fund for the Advancement of Education, 77 

Gadsby's Tavern, Alexandria, 190-91 

Gardiner, Robert H., 5, 23, 26 

Garnsey, Elmer E., 47 

Gateway, Alpheus Spring Packard, 171 

Gateway, Class of 1875, 141-42 

Gateway, Class of 1878, 124, 142 

Gateway, Class of 1903, 183-84 

Gateway, Franklin Clement Robinson, 135—36 

Gateway, President's, 119 

Gateway, Warren Eastman Robinson, 156—57 

Gazebo, Brunswick Mall, 187 

Georgian style, 61, 90, no, 114, 138, 147, 150, 

159, 175, 184 
German, Department of, 108 
German Romanesque, 26 
Getchell, Gertrude B., 125 
Getchell, Grace T, 125 
Getchell House, 125 
Gibson, Harvey D., 58, 75, 148 
Gibson, Harvey Dow, Hall of Music, 58—59, 67, 

77 

Gibson, Mrs. A. D., 59 

Glidden, John, house, Newcastle, 40 

Goff, John, 121, 179 

Gothic Revival style, 23-24, 41, 5 1, 5 5, 65, 88, 90, 
no, 130-31, 134, 137, 153-55 

Governing Boards, system, 1; first meetings, 1; 
concerned with student accommodations, 2; 
relationship with William Allen, 3; sign decla- 
ration, 4; dissension over religion, 5; specifica- 
tions for Maine Hall, 13; vote to proceed on 
Appleton Hall, 21; name Adams Hall, 32; vote 
to refuse Memorial Hall, 35; accept gift of 
Walker Art Building, 43; votes to erect build- 
ings, 69; committees of, 79; student participa- 
tion in, 80; raise money for gymnasiums, 85; 
vote to give land to First Parish, 129; minutes 
of, how to find, 193 First Walk n. 1 

Graves, Coolidge, 1 30 

Greason, A. LeRoy, as dean, 80; presidency of, 83 

Great Eastern Building Company, 187 

Greek Revival style, 14, 15, 21, 91, 123, 1 27, 151, 
164, 191 

Greene, Benjamin, house (now Delta Upsilon), 
161, 189 

Gropius, Walter, 70 

Gymnasium, Malcolm E. Morrell, 113— 114 

Gymnasium, Sargent (first). See Heating Plant 

Gymnasium, Sargent (present). See Sargent 
Gymnasium 

Hale, Daniel, 127 



Hale, George W, 127 

Hale, Mrs. Sarah, 25 

Hale, Robert, 1 5 7 

Haley, James, 30 

Ham, Edward B., 198 Rhodes Hall n. 3 

Ham House, 127, 151 

Ham, Mary, 127 

Ham, Roscoe J., 127 

Hamilton College, 137 

Hanley, Daniel F, 96 

Harding, George M., 121 

Harpswell Street, 117 

Harpswell Street Apartments, 187, 81, 179 

Harriman, Alonzo, and Associates, 112, 113 

Harris, Samuel, presidency of, 5, 6; mentioned, 
190 

Harvard University, library of, 2; Hollis Hall, 13; 
Memorial Hall, 36; Gore Hall, 50; Widener 
Library, 50; Hemenway Gymnasium, 85; sta- 
dium, 183; mentioned, 1, 7, 23, 34, 44, 50, 64, 
66, 70, 73, 74, 81, 90, 101, 107, 141 

Harwell, Richard B., 65 

Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, 63—66, 78 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 3, 14, 18, 65 

Haystack Mountain School, Deer Isle, 70 

Health Center, Dudley Coe, 95-96 

Heat and light, advent of, 54 

Heating Plant, 85-87, 73, 101 

Higher Education Facilities Act, 63 

History of Bowdoin College with Biographical Sketches 
of Its Graduates, 3 

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, 42 

History of Brunswick, Topsham, and Harpswell, 
Maine, 125, 171 

Homecoming, 74 

Hopkins, Mark, 39 

Hoppin, William J., 28 

Horticulturist, 1 5 4 

Hotel de Sens, Paris, 59 

Housing, need for 2, 5 3, 61, 79 

Howell, Roger, Jr., presidency of, 69, 80-81 

Hubbard Grandstand, 183-84, 8 

Hubbard Hall, 49-52, 7, 8, 63, 66, 82, 136, 184 

Hubbard, Thomas H., 8, 36, 39, 49, 63, 90, 93, 98, 
1 5 8, 1 83-84, 195 Hubbard Hall n. 1 

Huntington, Collis P., 50 

Hyde, General Thomas Worcester, 90 

Hyde, General Thomas Worcester, Athletic 
Building, 88-91, 87 

Hyde Hall, 53-55, 7, 58, 61 

Hyde, John S., 90, 95 

Hyde, William D, presidency of, 7-8; reports, 53; 
death of, 53; President's Gateway named for, 
119; grave of, 187; and Mrs., 190; mentioned, 
15,43.45,49. 5°, 5 2, 73, 74, 85, 89,96,98, 101 



INDEX 



219 



Infirmary, Dudley Coe Memorial, 95-96, 73 

Inflation, effect of, 8 1 

Institute of Fine Arts, 134 

International Style, 65 

Ipcar, Dahlov, 1 1 5 

Italianate style, 30, 36, 121, 123, 134, 140, 161, 190 

Jefferson Medical College, 95 

Jewett, Sarah Q, 36 

Jewett, Theodore H., 36 

Johnson, Allen S., 198 Rhodes Hall n. 3 

Johnson family, 184 

Johnson, Frances, 155, 156, 157, 165 

Johnson, Helen (Chase), 155, 156, 157 

Johnson, Henry, 43, 44, 45, 48, 155, 156, 165, 184 

Johnson House. See Boody- Johnson House 

Jones, Benjamin, 10 

Jones, Leon E., 181 

Jordan, Francis C, 189-90, 192 

Kamerling, Samuel E., no 
Kilham and Hopkins, 124 
King, William, 3,25 
Kling, Charles P., 98 
Kotzschmar, Hermann, 98 

La Farge, John, 47 

Lancaster, Donovan D, 101, 167, 181 

Language Media Center, 108 

Lassurance, Jean, 59 

Law school, move to add, 73 

Lawsuit, Bowdoin, 25 

Lee, Leslie A., 127; grave of, 187 

Legislature, Maine, 3, 30 

Liberal arts education, function of, 79—80 

Liberty Bank, 5 8 

Libraries, need for, 2, 7, 8, 63; role of, 49—50 

Library committee, ad hoc, 63 

Library Journal, 6 5 

Library, Nathaniel Hawthorne-Henry Wads- 
worth Longfellow. See Hawthorne-Long- 
fellow Library 

Lincoln Street, 127 

Lineman, 115 

Lithgow, H. N., Company, 159 

Little, George T., 3, 44, 45, 50, 51, 165, 195 

Little-Mitchell House, 164—65, 118, 151, 171 

Longfellow, Henry W, 3, 14, 17, 65, 133 

Lowell, Guy, 1 1 7 

MacMillan, Donald B., 93 
Maine Catalog, 1 5 o 

Maine General Hospital, Portland, 3 1 
Maine Hall, 13-15, second building completed, 1; 
construction begun, 3; rebuilt, 3; struck by fire, 



17; engraving of, 29; lack of dining facilities, 
123; mentioned, 1 1 

Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 194, 
'95 

Maine Historical Society, 178 

Maine National Bank, Brunswick, 90 

Maine State Museum, Augusta, 64 

Maine, statehood of, 3 

Maine Street, 1 1 7 

Maine, University of, 6, 112, 183 

Mall, Brunswick, 118, 187 

Mall, Campus, 93, 83 

Mansard style, 161 

Mansfield State College, 77 

Manufacturer's Trust Company, 5 8 

Marsh, Seward, 93 

Martin, Abel C, 11 

Martin, Annie and Abbie, 139 

Martin, Henry C, 139 

Martin, Henry C, house, 189. See also Burnett 
House 

Masque and Gown, 37 

Massachusetts, General Court of, 1 

Massachusetts Hall, 9— 11; plans for, 1, 5; begin- 
ning of First Walk, 8; compared to Maine Hall, 
13; compared to Winthrop Hall, 17; engraving 
of, 29; first art gallery, 44; connection with 
Coles Tower, 169; from Packard Gateway, 171; 
mentioned, 5, 109 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 86 

Mayflower Apartments, 187 

McCormick, William, 93 

Mclntire, Samuel, 10 

McKeen, Joseph (president), presidency of, 1; 
mentioned, 3, 11, 129, 185 

McKeen, Joseph (treasurer), copybook of, 194 
Chapel n. 6; mentioned 21, 23, 26 

McKeen Street, 1 1 7 

McKim, Charles F, 42, 45—48, 50, 59 

McKim, Mead and White, work on Class of 1875 
Gateway, 141-42; Cleaveland Hall, 109—10; 
Coleman Hall, 61; Curtis Pool, 97-99; Gibson 
Hall, 58-59; Memorial Flagpole, 57; Moore 
Hall, 104-5; Moulton Union, 101-3; Polar Bear, 
93; Sills Hall/Smith Auditorium, 107-8; pro- 
posed addition to Walker Art Building, 69; 
Walker Art Building, 43-48; mentioned, 33, 
37, 64, 76, 82, 91, ii2, 183 

McManus, Captain George, House, 140 

Medical School of Maine, 3, 4, n, 29, 30, 32, 73, 
109 

Melcher, Aaron, 9, 10, 129 

Melcher, Samuel, in, work on Massachusetts 
Hall, 9, to, 11; Maine Hall, 13, 14; Winthrop 
Hall, 1 7; Commons Hall, 123; second First Par- 



220 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



ish Church, 129; Samuel Newman House, 163; 

Little-Mitchell House, 164-65 
Melcher, Samuel, and Sons, 19, 21 
Melcher, Richard T. D., 11, 21 
Melcher, Robert D., 21 
Melcher, William H., 21 
Memorial Hall, 33—37, 6, 32, 44, 74, 85 
Memorial Flagpole, 57 
Metcalf, Keyes, 64 
Methuen, Mass., high school, 5 1 
Middlebury College, 90 
Military drill, institution of, 3 5 
Miller, William R., 145-46, 147-48 
Mitchell, Wilmot B., 165 
Morgan Library, 47 
Moore, Augustus E., 105 
Moore Hall, 104—105, 144 
Moore, Hoyt A., 105 
Morrell, Malcolm E., 114 
Morrell, Malcolm E., Gymnasium, 113— 114, 78, 

93 
Morrell, Richard A., 173 
Moulton, Augustus, 101, 102 
Moulton Union, 101— 3, 82 
Mount Holyoke College, 90 
Muir, William, Jr., 183 
Museum of Art, 43-48, 115, 184. See also Walker 

Art Building 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 48 
Myers, Denys P., 150 

Neal, John, 8 5 

New England Association of Colleges and Sec- 
ondary Schools, 81 
Newman, Samuel P., 3, 163, 165, 187 
Newsweek, 167 
New York University, 134 
Non-teaching staff, advent of, 74 
Northend, William, 43,45, 195 Hubbard Hall n. 1 
Norton, Charles E., 44 

Oakes, Harry, 175 

Oaklands, Gardiner, 23, 28 

Observatory, 73, 170 

175th Anniversary Campaign, 69, 70 

Orient, Bowdoin, 6, 35, 54, 66, 86, 99, 101, 102, 107, 

108, 124, 141, 142, 146, 163, 177 
Oxford Building, Portland, 150 

Packard, Alpheus S., 3, 129, 165, 187, 194 Apple- 
ton Hall n. 4 
Packard, Alpheus Spring, Gateway, 171 
Paintings, Chapel, 28 
Parish House, First Parish, 1 3 1 
Parker, Arthur T., 171 



Parris, Alexander, 10, 20 

Patten Free Library, Bath, 1 1 5 

Patterson, Marvin B., 117 

Payson, Franklin C, 54, 5 5, 58, 95, 98, 102, 104 

Peabody and Stearns, 35,85 

Peary Arctic Club, 5 2 

Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum, 5 2 

Peary, Robert E., 93, 195 Hubbard Hall n. 1 

Pejepscot Historical Society, 133, 140, 183 

Perry, William S., 155 

Peucinian Society, 2, 6, 14, 26 

Phi Alpha Society, 14 

Phi Delta Psi fraternity, 140 

Phi Theta Upsilon fraternity, 1 5 8 

Philosophy, Department of, 1 1 

Physical Plant, Department of, 85, 121 

Physical training, introduction of, 3 5 

Physics, Department of, 41 

Pickard, Charles W, 196 Coleman n. 1 

Pickard Field, 177—79, 61, 73. 7^> IOZ > IJ 7 

Pickard Field House, 177—79, 61, 82 

Pickard Theater, 37, 33, 61, 77 

Pickard, Frederick W, 37, 61, 77, 102 

Pickard, Irene S., 67 

Pickard, Jane C, 61 

Pickard, John C, 67, 196 Coleman n. 1 

Pickard, Mrs. Frederick, 177 

Pickard, Samuel, 196 Coleman n. 1 

Pierce, Franklin, 3,14 

Pierce, Jesse, 133-34 

Pierce, Mrs. Henry H., 74 

Pierson, William H., Jr., 28, 131 

Pilgrim House, Brunswick, 131 

Pine Grove Cemetery, 185—87 

Pine Street Apartments, 185, 81, 179 

Plan for the Year 2000, 81 

Polar Bear, 93, 178 

Portland City Hall, 98 

Portland Evening Express, 1 7 5 

Portland Public Library, 3 1 

Potter, Barrett, 149 

Pouliard, James, 30 

Pratt Institute, 70 

President's Gateway, 119, 107, 117, 124 

President's House, first, 1,4, 11 

President's House, 190. See also 85 Federal Street 

President's Report. See Report of the President 

Preston, William G., 33, 35 

Prince, N. A. 193 Maine Hall n. 3 

Princeton University, 7, 85; Tiger, 93 

Project 65, 79 

Prospect Park, Brooklyn, 142 

Psi Upsilon House, 149—50, 187 

Public Relations and Publications, Office of, 125 

Putnam, William L., 89 



INDEX 



Quadrangle, i, 34 
Queen Anne style, 42, 55,86 
Quinby, George H., 37, 76 
Quonset hut, 1 1 2 

Raymond, Anthony C, 13, 14, 15, 123, 129, 133 

Reading Room, Albert Abrahamson, 66 

Reed, Thomas B., 158 

Religion, Department of, 1 1 

Religion, role of, at Bowdoin, 4 

Renaissance style, 90 

Report of the President, first, 7; 1885-1917, 53; 
1891-1892, 15, 39; 1896, 50; 1900— 1901, 49; 
1909, 89; 1910— 1911, 89; 1912, 89; 1912-1913, 
95; 1913-1914, 96; 1914-1915, 8; 1915-1916, 
95; 1917— 1962, 96; 1933— 1934, 76; 1941, 104; 
1 948-1 949, 64; 1952, 72; 1956— 1957, 63; 195 8— 
1959, 78, 113; 1966-1967, 79; 1968-1969, 69 

Rhode Island State House, 46 

Rhodes Hall, 121, 118, 123 

Richardson, Henry H., 46 

Riggs, Kate D. W., 74 

River House, 1 17 

Riverside Church, New York, 90 

Robinson, Anne J., 155, 156, 157, 201 Whittier 
Field n. 3 

Robinson, Arthur, 136 

Robinson, Clement F., 31, 136 

Robinson, Daniel A., 136 

Robinson, Dwight, 136 

Robinson, Ella M., 136 

Robinson, Franklin C, 31, 124, 135-36, 156; 
grave of, 187 

Robinson, Franklin Clement, Gateway, 135—36 

Robinson, Warren E., 136, 156 

Robinson, Warren Eastman, Gateway, 156—57 

Romance Languages, Department of, 108 

Romanesque style, 23, 24, 26, 55, 86, 90, 131 

Rose, James, 127 

Rotch and Tilden, 85—87, 89, 131 

Roth, Frederick G. R., 93 

Running water, advent of, 1 5 

Russian, Department of, 108 

Russwurm, John Brown, 165 

Russwurm, John Brown, Afro-American Center, 
T65 

Saarinen, Eero, 1 1 2 

Sagadahoc County Courthouse, Bath, 3 1 

St. Andrew's Church, Newcastle, 40 

St. Charles' Church, Brunswick, 136 

St. James Church, Old Town, 40 

St. Luke, Cathedral Church of, Portland, 40 

St. Paul's Church, Brunswick, 28, 130, 154 



St. Paul's School, Upper School Building, Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, 5 1 

St. Peter and St. Paul, Cathedral Church of, 
Washington (National Cathedral), 40 

Saratoga Associates, 81, 82, 93 

Sargent, Dudley, 85 

Sargent Gymnasium, first, 85-87, 7, 101. See also 
Heating Plant 

Sargent Gymnasium, 88—91, 73, 82, 87, 1 1 1 

Sargent School of Physical Education, 85 

Sasaki Associates, 177-78 

Schoener, Jason, 1 1 5 

Schuyler, Montgomery, 54, 142 

Science, Bachelor of. See Bachelor of Science 
degree 

Science curriculum, expanded with Searles Sci- 
ence Building, 42; growth of, 109 

Science for the Common Good, 1 10 

Searles, Edward F, 8, 39, 50 

Searles, Mary Frances, Science Building, 39—42, 
7, 8, 45, 50, 87, 109, no, 127, 135, 178 

Security, Campus, 121 

Self study, 77 

Senate, United States, 63 

Senior Center, 167—69, 64, 78, 81, 82, 113. See 
also Coles Tower 

Senior Center program, 78, 167—68 

Sesquicentennial Celebration, 77 

Sesquicentennial Fund, 63, 77, 107, 109, in 

Shepley Bulftnch Richardson and Abbott, 63, 66 

Shingle Style, 86, 125, 143, 147, 149, 150, 163, 
178, 184 

Shipman, Prof, and Mrs. William, 189 

Shumway, Mrs. Sherman N., 96 

Sigma Nu fraternity, 144, 173 

Sills Drive, 77, 118 

Sills Hall/Smith Auditorium, 107-8, 77, 82 

Sills, Kenneth C. M., 37; as dean, 54; acting presi- 
dent, 54; presidency of, 74; mentioned, 59, 63, 

73, 75, 76, 77, 95, 9 8 > I0I » I02 > I0 7, m6, 157, 

167, 177, 184, 201 Whittier Field n. 3 
Simmons, Franklin, 187 
Site planning, at Bowdoin, 20 
Skating Club of Boston, 1 1 1 
Skolfield- Whittier House, Brunswick, 140, 183 
Smith and Rumery, 173 
Smith Auditorium, proposed addition to, 82. See 

also Sills Hall/Smith' Auditorium 
Smith, Francis, George, David, and Benjamin, 

Fund, 107 
Smith, James K., 59, 82, 99, 105, 107, no 
Smith, Winfield, House, 187 
Smyth, William, 3, 34, 129, 131, 165, 187 
Society of Bowdoin Women, 5 5 ; founding of, 74 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



Sociology and Anthropology, Department of, 

Special Collections, 193 First Walk n. 1 
Spirit of the Dance, 1 1 5 
Spirit of the Sea, 1 1 5 
Stanford University, 7 
Stanwood, David, 189 
State Street Bank, Boston, 169 
State University of New York, Potsdam, 70 
Steinman and Cain, 82, 103 
Steinman, Cain and White, 63-66 
Steinman, Corrigill, Cain and White, 64 
Stevens and Stevens, 177 

Stevens, John C, work on Polar Bear; 93; 146; Psi 
Upsilon House, 149—50; Pickard Field House, 

177-79 
Stevens, John C, house, Portland, 150 
Stevens, John C, 11, 93, 150 
Stevens, John H, 93, 146, 150, 177 
Stevens, Paul, 150 
Stone Professorship of Intellectual and Moral 

Philosophy, 35 
Stone, Valeria G., 35 
Stowe House, Brunswick, 140, 189 
Stubbins, Hugh, and Associates, work on Morrell 

Gymnasium, 11 3-14; Senior Center, 167-69; 

mentioned, 82, 1 1 5 
Sturgis, Russell, 33 
Sweet Briar College, 82 
Swimming pool, need for, 97 

Tallman Lectureship, 102 

Taylor, John J., 179 

Temple, J. B., 25 

Thayer, Abbott, 47 

Theta Delta Chi House, 147—48 

Thomas, John P., 98, 175 

Thorndike Club, 144 

Tillotson, Frederic E. T, 76 

Titcomb, Rev. Benjamin, house, 189 

Tontine Hotel, Brunswick, 14 

Treworgy Furniture Company, Brunswick, 1 5 8 

Trinity College, 25 

Tufts University, 1 8 3 

20th Maine Volunteers, 133 

Union, Bowdoin, 101 
Union College, 81 

Union Mutual building, Portland, 169 
University of Chicago, 7 
University of Maine, 6 
University of Maine at Orono, 1 1 2 
Upham, Thomas C, 3, 25, 95, 129, 187 
Upjohn, Richard, designs for churches, 28; work 
on Chapel, 23-28; First Parish Church, 128-31; 



mentioned, 44, 154 
Upjohn s Rural Architecture, 1 30 
Upward Bound Program, 79, 127 

Vassar College, 90 

Vaughan, Henry, work on Hubbard Grandstand, 

183-84; Hubbard Hall, 49-52; Searles Science 

Building, 39-42; mentioned, 136 
Vedder, Elihu, 47 
Virginia, University of, 181 
Visual Arts Center, 69—71, 8, 48, 81, 142 
Vose, George, 3 5 

Walker Art Building, 43—48, 7; visual relationship 
with Searles, 5 1-52; proposed addition to, 69; 
closed during construction of Visual Arts Cen- 
ter, 70; compared to Visual Arts Center, 71; 
proposed addition to, 82; mentioned, 87, 142 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 70 

Walker, Harriet Sarah and Mary Sophia, 7, 43, 

44-45 

Walker, Sophia, 25 

Walker, Theophilus W., 25, 44 

Ward, James E., 1 11, 168 

Warren, Andre R., 67 

Wellesley College, 35, 86 

Wentworth Hall, 167-69 

Wentworth, Walter V, 76, 167, 200 Coles Tower 
n. 3 

Wesleyan University, 34, 83 

Weston, E. P., 193 Maine Hall n. 3 

Wheeler, Charles G., 171 

Wheeler, Gervase, 27, 153-54 

Wheeler, H. Herbert, 158—59 

Wheeler's History of Brunswick, 125, 171 

White, Stanford, 59 

Whiteside, William B., 167 

Whitman, Sarah, 36 

Whittier Field, 183-84, 102, 118 

Whittier, Frank H, 86, 89, 90, 95, 183 

Williams College, 30, 5 5, 73, 81, 86, 90, 1 12, 161; 
Thompson Infirmary, 95 

Williams, Reuel, 19-20 

Winter Street Church, Bath, 14 

Winthrop, Governor, 18 

Winthrop Hall, 17-18, 2; compared with Massa- 
chusetts Hall, 10; doorways, 13; refurbished, 
1 5 ; engraving of, 29; lack of dining facilities, 
137; mentioned, 85, 123 

Wolfe, Dudley F, 107 

Women, admission of, 69, 80 

Woodbury and Leighton, 39 

Woods, Leonard, presidency of, 4, 32; resignation 
of, 5; solicitation from, 20-21; work on Chapel, 
23-28; mentioned, 30, 154 



INDEX 223 



World's Columbian Exposition, 46 

World War I, 8 

World War I, Memorial Flagpole, 57 

World War II, impact of, 76 

Wright-Pierce, 179 

Wright, Pierce and Whitmore, 187 

Yale University, 5, 7, 20, 25, 50, 70, 73, 85; Battell 
Chapel, 33, 34; Bowl, 183; D wight Hall, 50; 
Old Library, 50 

Yellin, Samuel, 136, 157 

YMCA, 102 

Young, Ernest B., 95 

Young, Stephen J., 86, 187 

Zeta Psi House, 175 

Zorach, William, Marguerite, Dahlov, and 
Tessim, 1 1 5 



224 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



THE FIRST WALK 

The Quadrangle 
i. Massachusetts Hall 
z. Maine Hall 

3. Winthrop Hall 

4. Appleton Hall 

5 . The Chapel 

6. Seth Adams Hall 

7. Memorial Hall 

8. Marv Frances Searles 

Science Building 

9. Walker Art Building 

10. Hubbard Hall 

11. Hyde Hall 

12. Memorial Flagpole 

1 3 . Harvey Dow Gibson 

Hall of Music 

14. Coleman Hall 

1 5 . Hawthorne- Longfellow 

Library 

16. Class of 1922 

Fountain 

17. Visual Arts Center 



THE SECOND WALK 
Back Campus and Mall 

18. Heating Plant 

19. Sargent Gymnasium 

and Hyde Athletic 
Building 

20. The Polar Bear 

21. Dudley Coe Health 

Center 

22. Curtis Pool 

23. Moulton Union 

24. Moore Hall 

25. Sills Hall and Smith 

Auditorium 

26. Parker Cleaveland 

Hall 

27. Dayton Arena 

28. Malcolm E. Morrell 

Gymnasium 

29. The Tine man 




MAP 



225 




3°- 

3'- 
32- 
33- 
34- 
35- 



THE THIRD WALK 
The Perimeter 

The President's 
Gateway 

Rhodes Hall 

Commons Hall 

Class of 1878 Gateway 

Getchell House 

Ham House 

36. The First Parish Church 

37. Chamberlain House 

38. Franklin Clement 

Robinson Gateway 

39. Alpha Delta Phi House 

40. Burnett House 

41. Class of 1875 Gateway 

42. Alpha Rho Upsilon 

House 

43. Beta Theta Pi House 

44. Theta Delta Chi House 
Psi Upsilon House 
Ashbv House 



45- 
46. 



47. Boody- Johnson House 

48. Warren Eastman 

Robinson Gateway 

49. Chi Psi House 

50. Delta Sigma House 

51. Delta Kappa Epsilon 

House 

52. Little-Mitchell House 
5 3 . Coles Tower, 

Wentworth Hall, 

and Chamberlain 

Hall 
54. Alpheus Spring 

Packard Gateway 
5 5 . Baxter House 

56. Zeta Psi House 

57. Pickard Field House 

58. Farley Field House 

59. Harpswell Street 

Apartments 

60. Alpha Kappa Sigma 

House 

61. Winfield Smith House 

62. Class of 1903 Gateway 

63. Hubbard Grandstand 

64. Pine Street Apartments 

65. Pine Grove Cemetery 

66. 8 5. Federal Street 

67. Marshall Perley Cram 

Alumni House 

68. Copeland House